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2.4 Looking Inside Cells
Transcript of 2.4 Looking Inside Cells
All living things are made up of cells, but
there are even smaller structures inside cells.
These tiny cell structures are called Organelles.
Entering the Cell
A ridged layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms, but not animal cells.
A plant’s cell wall helps to protect and gives the cell its ridged shape.
All cells have cell membranes.
It controls what substances come in and out of a cell.
The “Brain” of the cell. It is the control center, directing all the cell’s activities.
Contains the genetic information for the cell.
The nuclear envelope protects the nucleus
Materials pass in and out of the nucleus through pores in the nuclear envelope.
Thin strands floating around the nucleus.
These strands contain genetic material, the instructions for directing the cell’s functions.
This is where ribosomes are made.
Organelles in the Cytoplasm
Cytoplasm is the gel-like region between the cell membrane and the nucleus.
Known as the “powerhouses” of the cell because they convert energy in food molecules to energy the cell can use to carry out its functions.
The endoplasmic reticulum’s passageways carry proteins and other materials from one part of the cell to another.
The spots on this organelle are ribosomes, which produce proteins.
Attached to the endoplasmic reticulum or floating in the cytoplasm
Ribosomes function as factories to produce proteins
The number one reason cells were discovered
Microscopes were invented.
The Cell Theory
All living things are composed of cells
Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things
All cells are produced from other cells
Receive proteins and other newly formed materials from the endoplasmic reticulum, package them, and distribute them to other parts of the cell.
Can be thought of as the cell’s mail room.
Chloroplasts capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell
Only cells of plants and some other organisms have these organelles.
Vacuoles are the “storage areas of cells”, they store food and other materials needed by the cell.
Lysosomes are small, round structures containing chemicals that break down certain materials in the cell.
The cells “cleanup crew”.
Specialized cells perform specialized functions in multicellular organisms
Nerve cells are specialized to transmit information from one part of your body to another
Red Blood Cells
Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout your body.
Other Specialized cells
Muscle cells and bone cells
White blood cells
Draw an example of each specialized cells