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2.4 Looking Inside Cells

**Add more detail and better pictures for certain organelles (vacuole)

Cassandra Schmidt

on 9 August 2013

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Transcript of 2.4 Looking Inside Cells

Looking Inside Cells
All living things are made up of cells, but
there are even smaller structures inside cells.
These tiny cell structures are called Organelles.
Entering the Cell
Cell Wall:
A ridged layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms, but not animal cells.
A plant’s cell wall helps to protect and gives the cell its ridged shape.
Cell Membrane:
All cells have cell membranes.
It controls what substances come in and out of a cell.
The Nucleus
The “Brain” of the cell. It is the control center, directing all the cell’s activities.

Contains the genetic information for the cell.
Nuclear Envelope

The nuclear envelope protects the nucleus
Materials pass in and out of the nucleus through pores in the nuclear envelope.


Thin strands floating around the nucleus.
These strands contain genetic material, the instructions for directing the cell’s functions.

This is where ribosomes are made.
Organelles in the Cytoplasm
Cytoplasm is the gel-like region between the cell membrane and the nucleus.

Known as the “powerhouses” of the cell because they convert energy in food molecules to energy the cell can use to carry out its functions.

Endoplasmic Reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum’s passageways carry proteins and other materials from one part of the cell to another.

The spots on this organelle are ribosomes, which produce proteins.


Attached to the endoplasmic reticulum or floating in the cytoplasm

Ribosomes function as factories to produce proteins
The number one reason cells were discovered
Microscopes were invented.
The Cell Theory
All living things are composed of cells
Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things
All cells are produced from other cells
Specialized Cells
Golgi Bodies

Receive proteins and other newly formed materials from the endoplasmic reticulum, package them, and distribute them to other parts of the cell.

Can be thought of as the cell’s mail room.

Chloroplasts capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell
Only cells of plants and some other organisms have these organelles.

Vacuoles are the “storage areas of cells”, they store food and other materials needed by the cell.

Lysosomes are small, round structures containing chemicals that break down certain materials in the cell.

The cells “cleanup crew”.
Specialized cells perform specialized functions in multicellular organisms

Nerve Cells

Nerve cells are specialized to transmit information from one part of your body to another

Red Blood Cells

Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout your body.

Other Specialized cells

Muscle cells and bone cells

White blood cells

Lung Cells
Draw an example of each specialized cells
Full transcript