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Regionalism in World Politics
Transcript of Regionalism in World Politics
Past & Present Aimed to track and explain the development and growth of formal regional institutions.
The references are broad ranging and comparative with particular attention paid to the evolving relationship between regionalism and multilateralism.
Three terms: Regional, Regionalism and Multilateralism Introduction Despite the negative impressions on it, the spirit of regionalism was revived and strengthened upon the ending of the WW2 & the creation of new set of international institutions, notably the United Nation & GATT system.
Three types of regional institutions:
1. Multipurpose institutions
2. Security alliances
3. Institutions with economical focus First Wave Second Wave The effects of globalization and uncertainty about the capacity of multilateral institutions made countries foster projects of economic integration, notably the creation of free trade areas (FTAs).
The removal of Cold War changed the parameters of the security domain making regional security more vulnerable and accessible to local actors.
Positive: Stepping stone to a more integrated world
Negative: Potential obstruction & damage to a broader global processes Third Wave Despite the skepticism, regionalism has showed durability, adaptability and survival. Conclusion *Q&A time * We are stronger when we are connected 1945 Present 1985 2002 March (cc) image by jantik on Flickr 1965 (cc) image by jantik on Flickr Time Frame for Regionalism First Wave Second
Wave Third Wave Elements of "region" Geographic contiguity
Certain degree of shared identities
Organizational cohesiveness The unstable economic & security structure after Cold War period promotes regionalism.
The UN support alone is not enough; the lack of resources & commitment of major states as global security provider made regional institutions prosperous further.
In "Clash of Civilization", Samuel Huntington said that loose regions could not be easily homogenized and had fragmentary power.
Regionalism provide states opportunity to place their distinctive mark on their own local institutional arrangement.
Nowadays regionalism have different labels; not just made in Europe but made in Africa, Asia and the Americas. In the area of economics and security, it was less characterized by mutual understanding of regional-multilateral relationships, defined more by material calculation of power, security & interest.
Of the early economic regional institutions, those outside Europe had mostly failed by the late 1960s, but some were later revived in different form in 3rd wave of regionalism.
Positively, developing countries were able to use regional institutions as platform to promote common positions on importance matters to the members; such as decolonization, apartheid and support Palestine movement.
The 3rd World institution like Non-Aligned Movement became a vehicle to represent developing countries' interests in international stage. Main features of 1st wave of regionalism: -Directly influenced by states with actual or potential investments in such institutions.
-The UN Charter, in its final form, endorsed the principle of regional partnership and action within the framework of the global security organization. Regional
Security Alliances (1950s) Focus on
Economic Multipurpose institutions
(1945) Examples: Americas, Commonwealth, Arab (LAS, OAS, OAU) -owed their rationale more to the evolving Cold War system and corresponding attempts by the superpowers to consolidate their respective spheres of influence, and as such constituted a blow to Multilateralism. Examples: NATO, Warsaw Pact, Rio Pact, SEATO, CENTO, ANZUS -Was initiated to promote regional
economic cooperation. Examples: Europe Community, NAFTA, PAFTA,
LAFTA A form of intergovernmental political collaboration whose principal objective is to foster economic cooperation among participating states (Ravenhill, 1995, 179).
Regions are a basis for cooperation among states only to the extent that geography coincides with culture (Huntington, 1996, 130).
Western Europe represents regionalism in its truest form (Gyohten and Morrison, 1992, 7).
For many years, the word multilateralism was a bad word among Asian policymakers, who worried that it was a catch phrase for American disengagement. The term regionalism revisits a different, but equally ominous, connotation of Japanese domination (Funabashi, 1995, 178).
Regionalism at the base may be either bilateral or multilateral among organizations and movements, and may thrust globally to forge links with civil societies in other regions as well (Mittelman, 1999, 83).
Regionalism may be defined as sustained cooperation, formal or informal, among governments, non government organizations or the private sector in three or more contiguous countries for mutual gain (Alagappa,1994, 158).
Regionalism refers to the political structures that both reflect and shape the strategies of governments, business corporations and a variety of non-governmental organizations and social movements (Katzenstein, 2000, 354).
Rather than try and work with a single, very broad overarching concept, it is helpful to break up the notion of regionalism into five different categories (Hurrell, 1995, 334).
Regionalism is seen as being necessarily multidimensional (Paul Taylor, 1993, 7). Regionalism Regionalism are: In Summary... A process and belief in promoting progressively higher levels of coordination, cooperation & integration among geographically contiguous states bound by shared goals & interests.
Policy & project whereby state & non state actors cooperate & coordinate strategy within a particular region.
Usually associated with a formal program, & often leads to institution building. Multiple countries working in concern of a given issue.
An approach to international trade, the monetary system, international disarmament and security, or the environment, based on the idea that if international cooperative regimes for the management of conflicts of interest are to be effective, they must represent a broad and sustainable consensus among the states of the international system. (Geoffrey R.D. Underhill)
Closely related to involves the forging of alliances and coalitions among nation-states in order to achieve goals.
The collective multilateral framework played an important role in maintaining world peace during Cold War.
Examples: United Nations, World Trade Organization, World Bank, World Health Organization. Multilateralism Reaction towards:
Superpower dominance of regional security arena.
The disappointing early results of both multipurpose institutions & non-European economic institutions.
The changing regional security environment. The 2nd wave institution building mainly among developing countries.
Focus on security concern; clear cut from earlier wave's economic regionalism.
Small steps to improve regional self sufficiency & cooperation in a changed regional & global environment.
Offers a little more flexibility to regional actors. This new institutions do not immediately assume security roles, but more on economic functions and purposes.
There were also a clear security dimension of institution building due to particular local threat:
Example: Vietnam (ASEAN), Iran (GCC), etc
Regionalism in second wave as a result like the first-mixed with added point that should be noted.
First wave: institutional survival rates were high: indeed the tally of institutional collapse in the first two waves is surprisingly small.
Examples: non-European US-sponsored alliances, CENTO and SEATO, the short lived of ACC and a number of non-European economic institutions (though many of these were later revived in some related form).
These institutional survival demonstrates that they are valued by their members, resilience and flexibility. ASEAN, ECOWAS, SADC, CARICOM, SAARC,AMU, GCC are the most familiar institutions in this second wave. The 3rd wave of regionalism was characterized by diversity of forms and organizations.
New institutions were formed in Asia Pacific region; APEC, MERCOSUR,CIS.
China with the creation of SCO also entered into regional security arrangements for the first time.
Additional protocols, treaties and conventions were signed relating to conflict prevention and management, human rights and democracy.
Change in name-lead to reshuffling of acronyms to reflect these reforms. New institutions:
CIS, CSTO, SCO, ARF, APEC, MERCOSUR, NAFTA, CACO
Reformed/ renamed institutions:
OAS, ECOWAS/ECOMOG, CSCE/OSCE, UDEAC/CEMAC, EC/EU, SPF/PIF, OAU/AU, IGADD/IGAD, SADCC/SADC The growth in security cooperation is surprising; after all international security is seen as an area in which cooperation will be hard to achieve. Cooperation has been achieved across a wide range of issues and regional institutions have helped to establish more orderly relationships between states. Cooperation has been a means of increasing security and welfare, and also influence and bargaining power. Old New (cc) photo by medhead on Flickr Comparison between Old & New Regionalism Characterized by exclusivity, protectionism and particular goals. Shaped by interdependence & forces of globalization, thus recognizes and complements rather than competes with universal norms & arrangements.