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早期教會三一論發展(一)

教會歷史一:第七課
by

John Chan

on 10 November 2014

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Transcript of 早期教會三一論發展(一)

早期教會三一論發展
耶穌基督
人子
基督
Kyrios
大衛的兒子
神的兒子
彌賽亞
復活
敬拜
拯救
聖靈基督論
天使基督論
Spirit Christology
嗣子論
聖父
Logos
Angel Christology
Modalism
撒伯流主義 (Sabellianism)
反對邏各斯論有「從屬論」(Subordinationism) 的傾向
una persona
Adoptionism
愛任鈕三一救贖工作
邏各斯論
彌賽亞
Prince of angels
angels of God
"Christ is king, and priest, and God, and Lord, and angel, and man, and captain, and stone, and a Son born, and first made subject to suffering, then returning to heaven, and again coming with glory, and he is preached as having the everlasting kingdom " (Justin, Dial 34,2)
猶太教陰影下的基督論(第一、二世紀)
希伯來書1:1-14
http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/0511.htm
耶穌
上帝
基督 (神的兒子)

馬可 1:9-11
路加 4:18f
約翰 3:34
羅 1:3f
徒 10:38
Isa 61:1
基督就是神的靈
Binitarianism
http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/07014.htm
Lactantius (240 – c. 320), Inst. div. IV, 6
For Christ did not at that time descend upon Jesus, neither was Christ one and Jesus another: but the Word of God— who is the Saviour of all, and the ruler of heaven and earth, who is Jesus, as I have already pointed out, who did also take upon Him flesh, and was
anointed by the Spirit
from the Father—
was made Jesus Christ
. (Irenaeus, Ad. Haer. III, 9,3)
Angelos
spiritus
Logos
150/160年
Philo
斯多亞學派
Stoicism
猶太教
護教: 個人邏各斯論
Justin
Tertullian
Pater enim tota substantia est, filius vero
derivatio
totius et
portio
(Adv. Prax. 9,2)
Justin: I shall give you another testimony, my friends, from the Scriptures, that God begot before all creatures a Beginning, [who was] a certain rational power [proceeding] from Himself, who is called by the Holy Spirit, now the Glory of the Lord, now the Son, again Wisdom, again an Angel, then God, and then Lord and Logos. (Dialogue with Trypho, 61)
For not only among the Greeks did reason (Logos) prevail to condemn these things through Socrates, but also among the Barbarians were they condemned by Reason (or the Word, the Logos) Himself, who took shape, and became man, and was called Jesus Christ. (The First Apology, 5)
three Persons
— the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit: three, however, not in condition, but in degree; not in substance, but in form; not in power, but in aspect; yet of one substance, and of one condition, and of one power, inasmuch as He is one God.
(Adv. Prax. 2,4)
tres dirigens
, Patrem, et Filium et Spiritum Sanctum dicat: tres autem non
statu
sed
gradu
, nec
substantia
sed
forma
, nec
potestate
sed
specie
, unius autem substantiae et unius status et unius potestatis, quia unus Deus
(Adv. Prax. 2,4)
una substantia
一論的發展

We have been taught that He proceeds forth from God, and in that procession He is generated; so that He is the Son of God, and is called God from unity of substance with God. For God, too, is a Spirit. Even when the ray is shot from the sun, it is still part of the parent mass; the sun will still be in the ray, because it is a ray of the sun— there is no division of substance, but merely an extension. Thus Christ is
Spirit of Spirit
, and
God of God
, as
light of light
is kindled. (Apolpg. XXI, 14)
Persona
林後2:10 「….你們在基督面前饒恕的」
「個體」
「面具」、「扮演角色」
Now, even if invisible things, whatsoever they be, have both their substance and their form in God, whereby they are visible to God alone, how much more shall that which has been sent forth from His substance not be without substance! Whatever, therefore, was the substance of the Word that I designate a
Person
, I claim for it the name of Son; and while I recognize the Son, I assert His distinction as second to the Father. (Adv. Prax. VII, 9)
una substantia, tres personae
聖父受苦論
Patripassianism
Praxeas
反對道成肉身和邏各斯論
是誰
約翰羣體的邏各斯
「道」(John 1:1-14)
τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ ὁ λόγος τοῦ θεοῦ. (Rev 19:13)
περὶ τοῦ λόγου τῆς ζωῆς (1Jo 1:1)
舊約影響(智慧)?
兩約間猶太文化的影響(Philo)?
希臘哲學影響?
邏各斯是耶穌基督(道成肉身)
影響
愛任鈕
特土良
亞歷山太革利免
俄利根
對抗諾斯底主義的二元分割
啓示、世界、人論的邏各斯
Jesus Christ is nomos and logos
Irenaeus
創造
救贖
啓示
L
ogo
s
經世三一論
(economic Trininty)
愛任鈕沒有處理三一之間的問題
經世三一一神論
(economic-trinitarian Monotheism)
三一只是上帝與世界的關係多於上帝本體的關係
唯一神格論
Monarchianism
三一上帝就是拯救歷史?
聖靈
注意
one
substance
Subordinationism
子嗣論與
的分別
耶穌洗禮
羅馬書1:4
彼得講道
基督之歌
形態論
1. 有一位神,有權能創造宇宙萬物,
也有溫柔雙手安慰受傷靈魂。
有一位神,有權柄審判一切罪惡,
也有慈悲體貼人的軟弱。

2. 有一位神,有權能創造宇宙萬物,
也有溫柔雙手安慰受傷靈魂。
有一位神,高坐在榮耀的寶座,
卻死在十架挽救人墮落。

副歌:
有一位神,我們的神,唯一的神,名叫耶和華。
有權威榮光,有恩典慈愛,是昔在今在永在的神。
trinitas
http://www.tertullian.org/latin/adversus_praxean.htm
"trinitas"
欲知後事如何,請看下堂分解
聖經沒有的字眼
Defensive concept
世上只有一位神
耶穌基督是神
聖靈是神
(人)
(神)
從屬論
強調只有一位神
動態唯一神格論
形態唯一神格論
早期教會的三一論其實只討論耶穌基督與聖父的關係
http://www.tertullian.net/works/adversus_praxean.htm
Tertullian
vs
55 但司提反被聖靈充滿,定睛望天,看見上帝的榮耀,又看見耶穌站在上帝的右邊,56 就説:「我看見天開了,人子站在上帝的右邊。」
6 有一天,上帝的眾子來侍立在耶和華面前,撒但也來在其中。(伯1:6)
擬天使基督論
Angelomorphic Christology
Economic Triniry
Immanent Trinity
http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/0317.htm
Full transcript