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How can Psychology affect Performance

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Jay Trevaskis

on 28 March 2011

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Transcript of How can Psychology affect Performance

the condition that drives behaviours
and keeps them going once started
Positive and Negative
Intrinsic and Extrinsic
How can Psychology affect Performance?
Anxiety and Arousal
Psychological strategies to enhance
motivation and manage anxiety
positive motivation is the desire to
succeed in a task that will make you
feel happy, content or satisfied
Positive Reinforcement helps
maintain positive motivation
Negative Motivation is the desire
to succeed in task to avoid an
unpleasant or undesirable consequence
Intrinsic motivation comes from within the athlete. It's the most powerful and rewarding motivation
Extrinsic motivation comes from external rewards. The external reward provides more satisfaction than the task itself.
examples include people continuing to play even though they have very little success
examples include athletes playing to win a trophy, money or even to get the praise or others.
Anxiety and Arousal
A negative emotional state that results
from percieving a situation as threatening,
uncontrollable or unavoidable
Makes people feel nervous, uneasy, fearful
or panicked
Arousal is the physical and mental
activation intensity at a specific point

State Anxiety
Trait Anxiety
A personality type that has a tendency towards
perceiving conceivable non-dangerous situations
as threatening or non threatening
The temporary feeling of apprehension,
tension or inadequacy related to a specific
point in time
For example a player getting
nervous just before a game
an imbalance between what
is demanded of you and your
perceived ability to cope
stress comes from range
of sources and they'll be
different for different people

Optimal Arousal
Athletes search for optimal
arousal - a point where their
concentration is at its peak to
produce good performance
Read pages 114 - 115 of your PDHPE in
focus textbook
Psychological Strategies to enhance motivation
Concentration and attention skills
Mental Rehearsal/Visualisation/imagery
relaxation techniques
Goal Setting
the ability to remain completely focused on appropriate cues
Block out external cues eg environmental
factors such as the crowds, noises, opponents (sledging), conditions
Block internal cues such as your own thoughts, worries about making mistakes or referees decisions
Strategies for focusing and concentration:
* Music - can calm an athlete and aid concentration
* Cues - verbal, visual or physical and have a specific meaning to the athlete
* set routines - follow a routine for every performance of a skill eg Jonny Wilkinson and Tiger Woods.
Concentration activities
As long as I can concentrate and remain somewhat calm, I can normally do very well.
Al Oerter
Can be used to picture what should
happen but also on something unplanned
to help them cope with the unexpected
helps athletes feel comfortable with the environment they will be competing in by familiarising themselves with it before the event, picturing their surrounds, the crowd, the noise and even the smells.
relaxation techniques help maintain
their arousal and anxiety levels
Examples include Progressive Relaxation,
Centred Breathing, Meditation, listening to music,
and having a massage
Involves activity contracting specific muscles and then relaxing them. The athlete focuses on feeling tension and lack of tension within the muscles. Generally, they begin with the muscles in their feet and work their way up the body. Athletes can learn to use trigger worlds such as ‘calm’ or ‘relax’ during competition.
This allows an athlete to clear their mind, relax and focus on what they have to do. It involves:
Breathing evenly and deeply from the abdomen
Breathing through the nose and out through the mouth
Keeping shoulders relaxed (they shouldn’t rise and fall) as the stomach goes in and out).
The process of focusing your attention on a single thing (e.g breathing, an object, sound or place) for a period of time. By excluding outside thoughts, it allows the body to relax.
Progressive Relaxation
Centred Breathing
Goal setting is a process that identifies a destination (long term goals) and how to get there (short term goals).
Setting goals and achieving them, increases an athlete’s confidence. By setting short term goals to achieve along the way, an athlete’s confidence will increase meaning they are less likely to become nervous
Goal setting can also encourages the athlete to focus, improve skills and reduces anxiety.
Goals should be:
Watch the following video "The Kick"
and identify all the different sources of stress influencing the athlete. Categorise these as 1. Those in his control and 2. Those outside of his control. Within these two groups, further categorise them as "Internal" or "External" stresses
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