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Transcript of Pakistan
Ishtiaq Ahmed, “ The concept of an Islamic State, an analysis of the ideological controversy in Pakistan.” Frances Printer, 1987, London.
Muhammad Umair, "Economic Profile of Pakistan, 1947-2013", published on Academia.edu, 2014
“The State in Post-Colonial Societies: Pakistan and Bangladesh”New Left Review I/74, July-August 1972
Social Action Program
The SAP outcome:
what the data say.
None of the aims is reached and progress is slow.
- Primary school enrollment
- Infant mortality
- Access to health facilities
- Social spending as GDP percentage
Aims of the program were:
Rural water supply and sanitation
Characteristics of Pakistani society
1. Elite dominance
"the elites dominance found convenient to perpetuate for instance low literacy rates"
3. Ethnical division
1. Male élite
2. Social service highly centralized
3. Feudal landowners
2. Inequalities between regions and urban/rural areas
- Enrollment rates
- Gender gap
- Health and access to sanitation
imbalance between Pakistan’s growth and social aspects of development
in comparison with other countries.
GDP 884.2 billion US dollars
Literacy rate of population by region
Literacy rate by sex
health expenditure 2.7% of GDP (2012
Violation of human rights
The World Bank. Pakistan: http://data.worldbank.org/country/pakistan
BBC news, Pakistan profile Timeline: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-south-asia-12966786Alavi Hamza,
The Flat '50s
The Golden '60s
The Revivalist '80s
The Muddling '90s
The Socialist '70s
real: $ 232.3 billion
rate of growth: 4.4 in 2015
per capita: $ 1275.3 in 2013
The fragmentation is linked to the history of Pakistan
“Every conceivable division, such as Sindhi vs. Punjabi or Woman vs. Man has
been exploited to magnify dissensions, giving rise to blood baths, accentuated hatred, and intolerance”.
Ethnical, religious and linguistic division
1. Political instability
2. Alternation of power
Inhibitor factor of public provision of social services
Difficult agreement on
Worsening of conditions of
both in their possibility to access the service and in their role in delivering it.
Total population: 132,352,000
Percentage of population in rural areas: 67.50%
Authoritarian vs. Democratic regimes
Strong increase of expenditures for defense during authoritarian regimes
Secession of East Pakistan (Bangladesh) in 1969
Inflation during the Socialist Seventies (averaging 16% from 1971 to 1977)
Social issues. Urban vs. rural areas
Five Years Plans
Infrastructural and agricultural development (50s)
Industrial development, manufacturing sector and Green Revolution (60s, General Ayub Khan)
Nationalization during the Socialist period (70s, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto)
Islamic reforms in culture and education, privatization of industries and huge military/defense expenditure (80s, General Zia ul-Haq)
THE FIRST FOUR DECADES
Which are the main aspects of economic reforms from 1947 to 1988?
Rapid growth in total GDP and high GDP growth rate (from 3% in the 50s to 8% in 1985)
Growth in manufacturing sector (of 9%, in percent of GDP)
Growth in agricultural sector (of 4%, in percent of GDP – thanks to Green Revolution)
Controversial consequences (1947-1988)
Political instability (Nine governments in ten years)
Personal and elite’s interests instead people’s interests
Bad quality of policies and inadequate policy makers
Exogenous factors (nuclear tests in May 1998, the reaction of international community)
THE MUDDLING NINETIES
Which are the main causes of the Nineties decline?
7th Plan (1987-1992). Expenditures in public sector
32% for energy, 18% for transportation and communication, only 9% for water, 7% for education and 4% for health (in percent of GDP)
8th Plan (1993-1998). Expenditures in private sector
Not implemented because of political instability
GDP rate of growth from 8% to 2% (1997)
Total external debt increase (from $20 billion in 1990 to $46 billion in 1998)
THE 7th AND 8th FIVE YEARS PLAN
GINI index 29.6 or 0.29
$ 25 billion in textiles, rice, leather goods, chemicals, manufactures
US, China, Afghanistan, UK, Germany
$ 45 billion in petroleum, machineries, plastics, iron and steel, tea
China, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, India
3.4% of GDP
China 1.9%, India 2%, South Korea 2.8%, Japan 0.97%, Italy 1.6%
Pakistan shares some characteristics with the
of the world
Pakistani society shows social characteristics that demonstrates its
Education and Health
70s_Bhutto: nationalization of private schools
1972_Education policy: universal primary education
1977_The World Bank: alarm about school quality
1959_Five Year Plan: universal system of free and compulsory primary education
1965_Third Year Plan 1965:
increasing the supply of medical personell in rural and semi-urban areas
promoted active participation by local communities.
1980_USAID: lack of interest within the Government of Pakistan in social sector investments.
1984_World Bank: problem of quality of education
Official language: Urdu and English
Pakistan rupee (PKR)
How can we define the Pakistani system of government?
Metropolitan bourgeoisie had two objectives:
The creation of the structure of the State apparatus
To exercise domination over indigenous social classes
a strong bureaucratic military apparatus.
The structure of colonial power
Weak native bourgeoisie
Strong bureaucratic military oligarchy
Mantainance of interests of the native bourgeoisie
By time to time Pakistan is also exposed to forms of democratic government, but what is the role of politicians in this condition? who do they coexist with the oligarchy?
They are actually fundamental for them:
- Legitimate the system
- Absorb public discontent
Generals and bureaucrats mostly come from the
, usually from the Punjab region, and all made fortune by business.
This explains the importance of capitalism within the country.
They promote the
western modernization discourse
by pushing the country toward the
development of techniques of planning
- as a mean of economic development
to ask financial aid to the international agencies
neo-colonialism is the greatest beneficiary of the presence and autonomy of the military bureaucratic oligarchy.
Where does the oligarchy have its origins?
It comes from the poorest regions and
it asks for
- Regional autonomy
- An increase of the sharing and distribution of resources and power.
They stress their requests by underling the ethnic, linguistic and cultural differences.
It invokes for national solidarity and Muslim nationalism that had been the real ideological movement of the creation of Pakistan.
Is there an opposition?
The case of Pakistan:
Abdul A'la Maududi:
revival of an uncorrupted and pure Islam.
compatibility between Islam and the Western idea of democracy.
Manipulation of the concept of Islam and Democracy
The whole discourse has been used by the oligarchy to create and ideological phantasmagoria in which people can identify while it can keep power.
Role of Islam
14th of August 1947
Pakistan as the land of the Muslim Indians
Muhammed Ali Jinnah, founding leader of Pakistan, calls for a secular democratic system
Muslim state of East and West Pakistan created out of partition of India at the end of British rule.
- Jinnah's successor Liaquat Ali Khan is assassinated.
1956 - Constitution proclaims
Pakistan an Islamic republic
Martial law declared
1960 - General Ayyub Khan becomes president:
1971 - CIVIL WAR:
East Pakistan attempts to secede.
intervenes in support of East Pakistan which eventually breaks away to become
becomes prime minister
: ”Islam is our faith, democracy is our politics socialism is our economy”
erupt over allegations of
by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto's Pakistan People's Party (PPP). General Zia ul-Haq launches
- General Zia becomes president, launches campaign to introduce
Islamic law and usher in an Islamic system in Pakistan.
- November -
Benazir Bhutto's PPP wins general election
- Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif begins
economic liberalisation programme
Islamic Shariah law formally incorporated into legal code.
- President Khan and Prime Minister Sharif both
resign under pressure from military
. General election brings Benazir Bhutto back to power.
October - General Pervez Musharraf
seizes power in coup
2001 June - Gen Pervez Musharraf
names himself president while remaining head of the army.
Education and Health
2.1% of GDP
Pregnant women receiving prenatal care as a percentage before and after SAP
Improved sanitation facilities as a percentage of population with access in rural and urban areas, before and after SAP