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Michael Olague

on 23 October 2012

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Transcript of CBRN

Elements of CBRN Threats CBRN = Chemical, Biological, Nuclear, Radiological By Michael T Olague Pre-Modern History Of CBRN Warfare Greco-Roman Period Byzantine Greeks employ "Greek Fire" during the seige of Constantinople (637 AD) Middle Ages Armies often catapulted corpses over barriers to break infect defenders. Enlightenment Period British soldiers distributed smallpox-infected blankets as "gifts" to Native American tribes. Modern History Of CBRN Warfare World War I Stalemate caused from trench warfare catalyzes development of modern chemical agents World War 2 Germany develops nerve agents.
US develops Atomic bomb and drops two onto mainland Japan Cold War US and USSR lock in an arms race. Both sides ramp up WMD development Types of Chemical Agents Nerve
Incapacitating CBRN Threats Chemical
Nuclear/Radiological Chemical Nerve Agent Highly poisonous compounds that prevent the nervous system from working properly, ultimately leading to death through asphyxiation as control of respiratory muscles. Ultimately leading to death through asphyxiation as control of respiratory muscles fail. Vectors: Respiration, absorption through skin, ingestion. Examples: G-Series and V-Series agents. Blood Agent Compounds prevent oxygen transfer at cellular level, leading to death by asphyxiation. Examples: Cyanide, whether weaponized or exposed through industrial accidents. Halabja poison gas attack March 16, 1988 Blister Agent Cause severe skin and eye irritation in the form of large, painful chemical blisters.
Agents are heavier than air, and can linger on terrain for days to impede troop movement
Bonds to moisture prone areas. Known to be fatal if swallowed or inhaled. Choking Agent Examples: H-Series Mustard agents, Lewisite, Cause irritation to respiratory system, impeding a victim's ability to breathe.
Causes buildup of fluid within lungs that can lead to suffocation.
One of the earliest developed agents in modern warfare. Example: Chorine, Phosgine Incapacitating agents Produce physiological or mental effects that render an individual's capacity to perform tasks. Effects are temporary. Examples: LSD, CS-Gas CS Gas causes skin, eye and light respiratory irritation, usually resulting in uncontrollable coughing Biological Types of Biological agents Synthesized, non- living compounds. Viral
Toxins Living compounds capable of reproduction.
Cheap and easy to manufacture compared to chemical weapons. Viral Require a living cell to function Individuals can be vaccinated, however once infection sets there is no antibiotic treatment possible Examples: Smallpox, Yellow fever, Ebola Bacterial Single celled microscopic living organisms.
Prokaryotic cells (without a nucleus)
Agents can "spore", allowing itself to survive extreme conditions. Examples: Anthrax, E. Coli, Cholera Fungi Primative plants that draw nutrients from decaying organic matter.
Spores of Toxin producing fungi may be cultured for biological weaponry due to spore stability, ease of manufacture, and dissemination.
Anti-crops, Anti-animal use. Examples: Rice Blast, Foot and Mouth Toxins Poisonous substances produced from the metabolic processes of living organisms
Can reverse effects with antitoxin or antidotes
* Are not cellular orgamisms, therefore cannot reproduce Examples: Hemotoxins (Rattlesnake), Necrotoxins (flesh eating bacteria), Neurotoxin (Black Widow) Botulinum toxin. Nuclear/Radiological Blast Components
Blast Types Radiation types Nuclear/Radiological Radiation types - Ionizing Alpha - two protons and two neutrons that
interact heavily with matter, thus cannot
penetrate most surfaces. Extremely dangerous
if breathed or swallowed - 20 times more
effective than gamma at cell damage. Beta - Consists of an energetic electron. Can
be stopped with a few CM of plastic or few
mm of metal. Sometimes used in radiotherapy to treat superficial tumors.

Gamma - Consists of photons at high frequencies. Caused from decaying nucleus ridding itself of excess energy after it has emitted alpha or beta radiation. Because gamma photons have no mass or electric charge, they penetrate much further.
Can be stopped with thick layers of dense material such as lead. Blast Components - 50-35-15% rule Blast - Overpressure built from weapon exerting matter away from ground zero. Shock waves cause most of destruction, knocking down man made structures and plant life. Shockwaves pass through human tissues, inflicting massive amounts damage to. Thermal - Intense heat is emmitted from blast that can exceed 100,000,000 deg C at point of impact.

Radiation - Radioactive particles descend back to surface after blown out from explosion in the form of fallout. Blast Types Air Burst - Weapon explodes at an altitude in such that fireball does not make contact with surface. Guarantees larger blast wave radius

Surface Burst - Blast occurs on or near ground. Large amounts of fallout result from the blast, posting the greatest long term nuclear hazard.

Subsurface - Occurs underground where surface collapses into a crater over the burst's location.
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