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NLS timeline

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Nicholas Detweiler-Stoddard

on 29 April 2010

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Transcript of NLS timeline

1. What is your five-minute summary or big-picture view of the past five centuries of the Christian tradition?
2. How would you describe the interface of theology and worship as evidenced across the five centuries we have studied this semester?
3. What audience have you envisioned as you designed your timeline?
4. What objectives or goals describe the outcomes that you want for people who interact with your timeline?
5. In what ways did your sense of your audience and your articulation of your objectives influence the way you worked out the timeline?
6. If you are working in a group, in what ways did all of you as members of the group take ownership of the entire timeline and the five centuries of history it represents?
7. What were the greatest challenges you faced in developing the timeline?
8. What surprises did you encounter in your work?
9. What stands out as your most significant learning or accomplishment from this work?

Catholic Reformation Eastern Orthodoxy Reforming voices
Council of Trent The RCC in the Modern World Napolean
19th Century
Early 20th Century
Catholic Theology Eastern Orthodox
in the Modern World Autocephalous Churches
Russian Orthodox Theology Biblical Criticism
Biblical Theology
Theologies of Hope
Liberation Theologies
Secular Theology
Currents Fundamentalism
Evangelicalism
Pentacostalism
Ecumenical Movement
The RCC after Vatican II

Trends in World Christianity Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 The Expansion of Christianity Fundamentalism:
North American reaction against harmful effects of Modernism & Liberalism
Named after 12 pamphlets, "The Fundamentals"
(1910-1915)
Distinct Tenets:
God verbally inspired scripture
Plenary inspiration (all parts equal)
Innerancy of Bible (it is w/out error)
Infallibility of Bible (it cannot mislead)
Read virgin birth and resurrection literally
Embraced substitutionary atonement model
Millenialism (literal 1000 yr reign of Christ)
Dispensationalism





7 dispensations directed by God
currently between Jesus and Rapture
"church age" not original vision of Christ
gospel ethics are for future age, not now
humans fail in every dispensation
nation ofIsrael is central player SOME KEY PLAYERS:

John Nelson Darby, d. 1884 (Dispensationalism)
Cyrus Ingerson Scofield, d.1921 ("Scofield Reference Bible")
Hal Lindsey, b. 1929 - ("The Late, Great Planet Earth")
Billy Grahahm, b. 1918 - (neo-evangelical evangelist)
Jerry Falwell, d. 2007 (Baptist televangelist)
Josh McDowell, b. 1939 - (apologist, "Evidence that Demands a Verdict") After 1925 Scopes trial,
largely discredited as
socially backward, maladjusted,
anti-progressive, anti-elite,
rural and southern


Mistrust of broader society, including colleges, spawned Bible institutes (e.g. Moody)
Movement fractured, especially over Eschatology
The most militant refused to cooperate with non-fundamentalists

Continues as a prominent force in recent decades:
Moral Majority & Christian Coalition politics
"Left Behind" novels
large Southern Baptist numbers North American Evangelicalism: Spiritual Rebirth SOME KEY INSTITUTIONS & PEOPLE:

Christianity Today
Fuller Theological Seminary
Wheaton College
National Association of Evangelicals
non-denominational churches

Rick Warren, b. 1954 - (Saddleback; "Purpose Driven Life")
James Dobson, b. 1936 - (Focus on the Family)
Pat Robertson, b. 1930 - (700 Club; Christian Coalition)
Robert E. Webber, d. 2007 (worship & early church scholar)
John Stott, b. 1921 - (Anglican-evangelical leader; author)

Descriptive of individuals or denominations who:

hold traditional doctrine
(without self-identifying as fundamentalist)
insistence on centrality of inspired Bible
emphasize personal conversion
stress personal piety
focus on evangelism and world mission
sin is largely personal separation from God;
overcome by personal transformation


Influenced by Fundamentalist theology but:
uncomfortable with its rigidity, divisiveness
views on eschatology, science, and culture are similar but less strong
are actually willing to engage ecumenically (even with Catholics)
have sought to establish intellectual credibility in the mainstream
sitemason.com/files/f1af3W/scopes1.JPG humantrafficking.change.org/blog/view/world_evangelical_alliance_tackles_trafficking www.omsinternational.org/files/countries/philippines/philippinesChurchService.jpg KEY GROUPS:

Pentacostalism largely born out of Wesleyan Holiness' & African-American Christianity's emphasis on experience of the Spirit (2nd work of Grace)

Assemblies of God (13 million members)
Church of the Foursquare Gospel
Church of God in Christ
Church of God, Cleveland TN
Lee University
Pentacostalism:
Experiencing the Spirit of God
Charles Parham (1873-1922) began asking, "What is effect of Holy Spirit?"
and became convinced that tongues (glossolalia) evidence of the Spirit

New Years Day, 1901 - marked as first occurence of speaking in tongues
Azusa Street Revival, 1906 - "fire came down," William Seymour and large number baptized in the Spirit; considered birth of Pentacostalism

racially integrated at the start
attracted marginalized population
anti-clerical (used lay and trained leaders)
early movement suspicious of higher ed
gender equality in leadership
pacifist until WWI (some until WWII, Vietnam)

By mid-20th century demographics and movement shifted:
New phase called "Charismatic" (charismata = gifts of the Holy Spirit)
Pentacostalism had formed its own denominations but new Charismatic movement took place within existing institutions
Adherrants now included socially respectable, highly educated, affluent

Pentacostals are evangelical in emphasis on personal transformation,
their views of scripture and God are often Fundamentalistic

"Disgraceful intermingling of the races, they cry and make howling
noises all day and into the night. They run, jump, shake all over, shout
to the top of their voice, spin around in circles, fall out on the sawdust
blanketed floor jerking, kicking and rolling all over it. Some of them
pass out and do not move for hours as though they were dead. These
people appear to be mad, mentally deranged or under a spell. They
claim to be filled with the spirit. They have a one eyed, illiterate, Negro
as their preacher who stays on his knees much of the time with his
head hidden between the wooden milk crates. He doesn't talk very
much but at times he can be heard shouting Repent," and he's
supposed to be running the thing... They repeatedly sing the same
song , 'The Comforter Has Come.'"

A Los Angeles newspaper (September 1906) kelbymilgrim.org/Azusa.html
A few vital pentacostal/charismatic concepts:

Akolalia = someone's ordinary speech heard as a different language
Glossolalia = speaking in another language

Charismatic Gifts (1 Cor. 12) include :

Tongues
Interpretation of Tongues
Healing
Prophecy
Discernment of spirits

Foursquare Gospel refers to four fundamental beliefs of Pentecostalism:

1) Jesus saves, John 3:16
2) baptizes with the Holy Spirit, Acts 2:4
3) heals bodily, James 5:15
4) and is coming again to receive those who are saved, Thess 4:16-17

Pentacostals-Charismatics now number over 500 Million! SOME KEY ORGANIZATIONS:

Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity (RCC)
National Council of Churches
World Council of Churches
World Student Christian Federation Ecumenism: Searching for unity in diversity Ut Omnes Unum Sint – That they all may be one (John 17:21)
Widespread disunity after Reformation (including Wars of Religion) troubled Christians for centuries

World Missionary Conference (1910) and missiological dilemmas pushed the need for ecumenism:

indigenous people could not understand the disunity of denominationalism
shared inter-denominational values were seen as crucial for effective witness

At Vatican II, the Catholic Church stated that Christian divisions,
"openly contradict the will of Christ,
scandalize the world and damage the most holy cause,
the preaching of the gospel to every creature."


In the late-20th century,
Protestants rediscovered richness of Catholic spirituality
because of the increased openess
www.fma.ie/images/pope_benedict_ecumenism_2.jpg Vatican II put the Catholic Church in a much more open & welcoming posture
Catholic Church has remained theologically conservative since Vatican II but has played an active role in social and economic justice (esp. w/ Pope John Paul II)
A host of innovations were allowed in worship, leadership, ecumenism, social engagement
Vatican II (1962-65): Opening the Doors
CATHOLIC LITURGICAL RENEWAL (Vatican II)

•Fuller participation by all the faithful gathered
•Worship less tied to fixed formula of words, more freedom
•Liturgy more pastoral, less dogmatic
•Living vernacular came into common use for liturgy and whole mass
•Increased emphasis on Bible readings and preaching’
•Allowed laity to study scripture on own
•Eucharist Altar moved closer to congregation, priest now faces people
•Laity now can handle and have both bread and wine
•Eucharist takes on more celebratory tone
•Eucharist now celebrated by whole congregation, not just priests
•Less elaborate vestments
•Singing of popular hymnody by whole congregation

Luther hardly first person seeking reform of Roman Catholic Church


Long Running Reform Some reforming voices from within:

Savanarola, OP (d. 1498) and enraged crowds burned "vanities," used indimitation tactics to enforce moral reform. Papal interdict against him; was tortured, hanged, burned and dumped in river [sought reform through direct confrontation]

Cardinal Ximenes (d. 1517) sought to improve spiritual discipline and education of clergy, spent decade imprisoned for denouncing corruption in the Church [sought reform through powers of his office]



Other 16th Century Orthodox Devlopments:

-Ivan the Terrible's success made Mosow's Patriarch the most important
-Orthodoxy at odds with post-Trent, militant Catholic Jesuits in Ukraine and Poland who demanded allegience to the pope
-Orthodoxy on genial terms with Protestants Dilemmas of Wealth & Charity While Western Europe in Reformation-Counter Reformation uproar, East fairly static, docile lest they upset the tolerant Turks

The one major controversy was over vast land wealth of Russian Orthodox monasteries:
Monasteries owned 30% of land
They contributed substantial assistance to the poor BUT funds came from produce of the land which competed directly with the same poor
"non-Possessors" saw injustice and called for monks to retreat from world, not be engaged in economic activity
"Possessors" said monks must keep land and continue caring for the poor; this side won

All previous councils dealt with one or two issues, Trent faced a host of Protestant charges and Catholic needs

Thoroughly rejected Protestant doctrinal reforms; refused to "lose face" lest they validate Reformation critiques; militant against Reformers

KEY: Catholic Reformation intiated at Trent reformed practice, not doctrine (although they did streamline important distinguishing doctrine)

Cleaning House: The Council of Trent (1545-63) New Worship Elements after Trent:

•Papal authority determined reliability of worship elements
•Single, uniform mass & office used in all Latin churches (centralized papal control)
•Sought to cleanse medieval accretions, return to "clean unadulterated forms," yet still complex liturgy w/ many books
•Narrative, poetic liturgy (less didactic than Protestant’s)
•Magnificent music and visual expression (less rational & intellectual than Protestantism)Restated importance of Latin, not vernacular, worship
•Adoration of Eucharist host, awe of sacrament
•Mass as propitiatory sacrifice of living & dead
•Laity not allowed to hold cup or drink the Eucharist wine
•Mass was activity solely for clergy, no lay involvement
•Laity passively observed and listened to mass in adoration
•Elaborate architecture set stage for mass “drama”
•Private confession before taking host
•Private masses allowed
wpcontent.answers.com/wikipedia/commons/6/66/Pope_Paul_IV.jpg www.italianvisits.com/images/eromagna-im/ferrara/ferrara_savonarola.jpg
Order of Divine Love (1497) involved laity and clergy seeking greater charity and broad spiritual discipline; [sought reform through personal and community improvement]
Capuchins (1528) sought reform through personal discipline and simplicity, care for poor, preaching scripture
Jesuits/Society of Jesus (1540) took vows of poverty, chastity, obedience; [sought reform through education, public preaching, international mission]

Pope Adrian VI (d. 1523) determined to carry out change, but died before he could; same was true of Clement VII and two more popes until Paul IV (d. 1549)


www.gutenberg.org/files/11954/11954-h/images/014.jpg
addressed financial corruption
declared responsibility of priests to pay attention to his parish
formed strict indulgence guidelines; still affirmed their use
prohibited marriage to Protestants
endorsed Aquinas' theology (disliked by Protestants)
affirmed Tradition was in line with scripture
founded seminaries to train priests by uniform standards (improved their education but also widened gap with laity)
banned and sought to destroy Protestant & Humanist writings, vernacular Bibles (ban kept until 1966)


The primary Orthodox patriarch had been reigning over the Church from within a Muslim state since the fall of Constantinople in 1453

When Turkish Ottoman empire began to crumble by the 1800s, the newly independent states did not want their churches controlled by the same Patriarch who used to carry out Imperial enforcement so they formed self-governing national churches

Today's Orthodox Church is made up of "administratively independent" branches who share the same faith, sacraments and history

The independence of the 19th & 20th centuries brought intellectual and religious freedom to the Orthodox church, encouraging popular devotion and study even as the former spiritual centers--the monastic orders--continue to decline

Orthodoxy's Self-Governing State Churches
In early 18th century, Tsar Peter the Great opened Russia to the West
Tsar Peter also placed church under his control by dissolving patriarchate
Church art, music and theology impacted by Western trends
By 19th century, rising nationalism brings negative reaction against West
Many Orthodox saw themselves as far superior to Protestants, Catholics

His Holiness Patriarch Kirill
of Moscow and All Russia
19th century also brought renewed monastic vitality
The new Russian spirituality influenced writers like Fedor Dostoevsky (d.1881) and Leo Tlostoy (d.1910)
20th century dealt substantial blows to Church under Communism (1917-1991); property confiscate, schools closed, priests severely restricted, some arrested and executed
Twenty years after the fall of USSR, Russian Orthodoxy is reigniting


www.mospat.ru/en/the_patriarch/

ORTHODOX WORSHIP TODAY
-300 million Orthodox Christians worldwide-











•Multi-sensory worship (visual, olfactory, auditory, touch, taste)
•Chanting and singing, no instruments
•Frequent signing of the cross and kneeling or bowing
•Veneration of saintly icons as “windows into heaven”
•Elaborate vestments and processions
•Worship is focused on Eucharist and preparation for receiving it
•Altar hidden behind doors in “holy of holies”, only accessible to priest and servers
The Scene in Europe: Politics, Religion, and Strife The Silver Lining
Even as power shifted to secular civil authorities, Ecclesial authorities freed from feudal loyalties
As prisoner of Napolean, Pope garnered sympathy for the papacy
Bishops lost land, rewards, privileges and were forced increase loyalty to pope for protection
Ultramontanism =
looking to papacy for leadership
By late 1800's, liberalism and secular nationalism stripped even the papacy of everything but the Vatican
Pope Pius IX responded by reinforcing spiritual authority against mordenizing forces of liberalism




German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck sought singular national allegience (1872-8), saw Catholics divided between nation and Rome so cut diplomatic ties with Vatican, expelled RC religious orders (but repealed worst laws when realized he needed Catholic Church's help against socialism)

At his 1804 coronation, Napolean further implied control over church by arranging ceremony like that of Charlegmagne--but crowned himself rather than allowing Pope Pius VII to do so

When Pope refused to approve English war, Napolean annexed Papal Rome for France (not returned until 1815)

Overall Napolean accelerated secularization (religious tolerance, religously nuetral values, state education, marital ceremonies by state)


Vatican I (1869-70)
set Papal infallibility = Pope cannot err

Turn of the 20th century continued to see power struggles between state authorities and the Roman Catholic Church, esp. in France


Pope Pius X continues defense against modernism (1907); required priests to take anti-modernist oaths, banned books, culled leadership ranks
Despite bans, education and theology experienced revival mid-century


World War I - Pope Benedict XV accused for maintaining nuetrality
World War II - Pope Pius XI tried to mend relations in Italy but Mussolini took over schools, put catholic youth into fascist system
German Catholics pressured to join Nazi party, Rome sent Palm Sunday sermons denouncing Nazis and Hitler
Enraged Hitler responded by intimating clergy
Pius XI legacy of resistance controversial, some think to little done against Nazi atrocities, others think Russian Communism was an even bigger threat
Church & War Church schools closed
Separation of church & state declared
Churches made public property
Congregations stripped of legal standing Approaching the Second Millenium
The growing push to contextualize orthodox dogmas, consider effect of cultural-historical changes and reappropriate doctrine for a new generation led to the dramatic changes of the Second Vatican Council (1962-65)
Theology Before Vatican II
20th century, despite repression of modernism, brought different ways of thinking for Catholicism
Jacques Maritain (d. 1973) - theology relevant for modern culture
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (d. 1955) - harmonized theology & science
Karl Rahner (d.1984) - orthodox but every era must rediscover own doctrine Teilhard de Chardin Rahner Maritain avizora.com/publicaciones/biografias/textos/textos_m/images/maritain_jacques2.jpg http://www.chasque.net/umbrales/rev163/teilhard%20de%20chardin.jpg http://piergiorgiofrassati.no.sapo.pt/imagens/Rahner.gif
As modernity moved in, the Catholic church took on an increasingly defensive position in favor of tradition but continued to loose ground
During the French Revolution, church land was seized
Napolean offered land back (1801), but demanded:

right of state to install own bishops
state's right to reject appointments of clergy made by bishops
payment of clergy from public funds, not ecclesial
prohibited papal decrees w/out state approval


"They're At It Again...And The State Is Winning" brogilbert.org/moreau/1moreau_frenchrev.htm Through new eyes...
Modernism begins to see literary qualities of scripture,
scholars employ tools of modern historical,
social and literary theory to study it


Initially asked simple historical questions, "Did these events actually happen? Was this the actual writer? What was the social context?"

Traditional views of scripture and doctrine were threatened by their conclusions

Recent biblical scholars are more interested in the effect the text on the reader

Growing optimism that we can relatively accurately determine original intent of authors

Biblical Theology connects directly to preaching and life of the faith community

Seeking Unity Within Diverse Texts
With the seeming hopelessness of finding anything conclusive in historical-critical study, some have turned to "Biblical Theology" to find common conceptual threads
Intelligible Theology
Secular theologians avoid:
theological jargon
supernatural elements

Secular theologians affirm:
Christian secularization (natural science, democracty, cultural pluralism and tolerance)
reinterpret Christian message in relevant terms
Maintaining its distinct character


Harvey Cox, "The Secular City" (1965)
John A.T. Robinson, "Exploration into God" (1967)
Influenced by Paul Tillich
Since 1960's "secular theologians" have sought put churches story in understandable language for modern, urban, industrial society

1960's Latin American context saw an end to colonialism but no end to economic and political oppression; wealth & power remained in the hands of the few

Religion, rather than confronting inequity, often egitimated its structures or was nuetered through over spiritualization

Liberation theologians saw gospel salvation as applying to the concrete here and now, not just a future spiritual heaven





Liberation theologians,
like Gustavo Gutierrez sought to:

despiritualize biblical salvation themes
unpack Exodus themes of liberation
see God as primarily with and for the poor, not the rich
see sin as social, political, structural, not just personal
dismantle dependence by conscientizing populace about the unjust structures
did theology from the bottom up--using life experience--rather than theology top down from the academia and institutions of power




This new look at scripture has been somewaht slow to make significant inroads in church life, but one of the biggest outcomes has been the "Historical Jesus" movement:

Albert Schweitzer (d. 1965) one of first searching out the historical Jesus.
After him, scholars like Rudolf Bultman (d. 1976) assumed it pointless to purse "real" Jesus without 1st demythologizing NT.
A third wave of Jesus scholars after '60's returned to original hope that true message of Jesus could be recovered (Marcus Borg, N.T. Wright)

Many left modern critical study seeing Bible as a "hopelessly disparate collection of documents" www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/ni/papyrus.jpg Some late 20th cent. European theologians wished to hold a vision of the kingdom of God that was not simply the liberal idea of a bettered society nor the conservative speculation of exact timing of the end.

Their movement was named after Jurgen Multmann's book
"Theology of Hope" (1964) Ultimate Reason for Eschatological hope:

Bible is about God's promise that God will act in the future (Moltmann, 1964)
In Jesus, God's reign began, is drawing to a conclusion (Moltmann, 1964; Pannenberg, 1964)


Eschatological Hope Liberation from Dependence Black Theologians, like James Cone added:
Liberation requires reconciliation
No one will be fully set free until all are
At cross, God takes on suffering for the victims/oppressed

Feminist Theologians, like Rosemary Radford Ruether noted:
Patriarchy as a key sin
Women's failure to affrim self was more of a sin for them than pride Catholic Orthodoxy Popes & Kings
Divergence within -Pope's power waning
-Secular authority on the rise Heavyweights: Pope vs. King
Council of Trent had strengthened papacy
State monarchs were interested in establishing national churches independent of papacy; glad to see French clergy gain some autonomy
Rulers approved of Febronius' argument that Church's authority lay in faith community and with their elected bishops, not with the pope
Many also believed Trent too narrow in dismissal of Reformation ideas

In late 1700's, Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II threatened by church's 40% land ownership, took control of some monasteries & clergy's education in Vienna
By end of century he declared papal bulls inauthoritative, banned clergy contact with Rome, and allowed freedom of religion for all


Trent had affirmed Aquinas over Augustine because Thomas seemed less Calvinist

16th cent. conservative theologians accused others of being "closet Calvinists" or simply thinking too much like Protestants

Tensions became so great, French King Louis XIV closed one of the dissenting schools so as to hold together French Catholicism

The pope also condemned mysticism because it provided directed contact with God, and thus, a loop-hole for the invidual to be free of authority to the Church or the papacy Internal Catholic Dissension The 30 Years War Time of overlapping allegiences:
town
parish
local aristocracy and monarchs
national borders

Roman Catholic Church was the first Global Institution, commanded overarching allegience--that is, until the Reformation splintered its control 16th cent. Protestants gained signficant territory before uneasy Peace of Augsburg brokered
Protestant refugees from Catholic territories flooded decreasing Protestant lands
17th cent. Protestants lost substantial portions of their winnings to resurgent Catholicism
The Peace of Westphalia was signed in 1648 to end the bloody 30 Years War as it was apparent neither side had the resources to fully defeat the other
Eurpeans had again failed to settle their religious disputes without bloodshed

Each ruler agreed that they could choose the religion of the lands under their control:
"cuius regio, eius religio"
(loosely =)"Whose realm, his religion" France and the Huguenots 17th cent. Catholic France under various King Louis tenously allowed Protestant Huguenots to remain
The king's suspicions about the Huguenost were confirmed when they joined a revolt against him
King Louis XIV responded in 1684 by compelling them with armed forces to convert.
In 1685 he made it illegal to be Protestant in France and thousands fled.
In 1702, remaining Huguenots guerillas attacked French armies who then burned villages killing thousands
By 1709, brutal repression stamped out last insurgent only to have it remmerge in 1715, this time setting up a secret French Reform Church
French Reform eventually established a seminary and trained many pastors
By 1787, French and other Europeans were tierd of religious violence and Louis XVI decreed religious tolerance Prussia, Russia, and the Empire Eastern and Western countries struggled to build strong, efficient governments
Netherlands alone had a workable legislature rather than a single monarch
Prussia was perpetually worn down from fending off turks and saw need to reform peasant conditions, financy and policymaking and did so with a strong central government
Russia opened trade with Western Europe and was made into a world power by Catherine the Great (d. 1792)
rmadisonj.blogspot.com/2008/03/audacity-of-news.html Central Tenet:
God acts in love, is pure love The most obvious trend in the church today?
Go East (and South) Young Man For nearly two millenia, the Christian Church has been nearly 90% Caucasian

A hundred years ago, 80% of church lived in Europe or North America

Today less than 40% of Christians live in the global North

Leadership is also shifting with more and more leadership in the hands of non-white, non-males

BUT, even as power balances, Westerners must be aware of the inequitable amounts of wealth they hold and the impoverished conditions in which many of our sisters and brothers live
By the 1800s, Catholic & Protestant Mission Societies were well-established and European Christianity flooded out into the world from its continental enclave, following the colonial powers of the 19th & 20th centuries

Europeans often carried a cultural superiority complex, feeling obligated by "the white man's burden" to convert and civilize the heathen world, though certainly not all approved of colonialism or of their role in "preparing the natives" for colonial subjection

Interestingly, the mission field also proved open to the gifts of women and by 1870 more than half of all Catholic missionaries were women Portugese and Spanish first brought Christianity to South America in the early 16th century as they competed for portions of the New World

Portugese took the eastern coast and the Spaniards took the western and northern coasts (on up through Central America and what is now the US Southwest)

As in Central America, the Franciscans, Dominicans and Jesuits did most of the mission work among the indigenous populace


At the end of the US Civil War Protestants from the defeated South along with many missionary society members went into the field in South America. Between 1914 and 1950, Protestant numbers jumped eight-fold to 4 million but still were a significant minority to Catholics
By the early 19th century, liberalizing forces in Europe were influencing the colonies in South America with Simón Bolivar (d. 1830) & José San Martín (d. 1850) leading independence movements,

The new republics were heavily influenced by the secularizing reforms of Napolean which wanted separation of Church from state matters
As in Africa, there were small communities of Christians in Southeast and central Asia from the first centuries of Christianity, though few survived

European traders were traveling to Asia by the 13th century but it was the Portugese in the early 16th and Dutch in the 17th centuries who founded permanent trading colonies Francis Xavier, SJ (d. 1552) - had 30,000+ Japanese converts, raised native clergy, adapted to host customs and left a thriving church that was 100,000 when Protestants showed up in 19th century
Matteo Ricci, SJ (d. 1610) - Christianity to upper class Chinese using radical cultural accomadation
Robert Morrison (d. 1834) - 1st Protestant missionaries in China, translated scripture
William Carrey (d. 1834) - one of first missionaries in India and defied trade companies in doing translation and mission work, inspiring generations of American & Northern European missionaries to join in successful liberating work with the lowest classes
By 20th century independent Indian churches were emerging, Chinese were poised to adapt the faith
Industrial interest in the riches of interior Africa finally sparked missionary explorers like David Livingstone (d. 1873), translator John Phillip (d. 1851) & human rights activist Robert Moffat (d. 1883) who cleared the way for European military and commerce by the end of the 19th century
Even though Africa saw Christianity as early as Europe and Asia, much of it was wiped out by years of Muslim rule other than in parts of Ethiopia and Egypt

Portugese explorers in the late 15th century established Catholic colonies on the Southwestern and Southeastern coasts of Africa

By 1650s Dutch Reform were colonizing South Africa
English Anglicans established a small South African colony in 1814

Despite the coastal colonies, virtually no Europeans ventured into the heart of Africa until the 19th century so it remained untouched by Euro-christian culture
North America
South America
Africa
India
China
Japan

British were the other highly succesful N.American colonizer, also taking Canada in 18th cent. and adding Anglicanism to the French Catholic mix

The British American colonies were inhabitted by nearly every major British religious group. Early tensions were overcome to create a unique level of mutual tolerance, and with formation of an independent country, freedom of religion was institutionalized into law

Waves of immigrants and newly acquired French territory boosted numbers of American Catholics to the largest denomination by the Civil War

Racism and inequality forced the massive converted slave population to form their own denominations by the turn of the 19th century (AME, African-Methodist Episcopal one of the 1st)
By 16th cent. Spanish were colonizing North America & the Caribbean with conquistadors, Franciscans, Dominicans & Jesuits

The Spanish usually considered indiginous persons as infidels with heretical native religions and allowed settlers the right to indigenous labor (usually exploitive slavery) with hope of Christianizing them
French Catholic explorers brought Christianity to Canada by 16th cent.
Freed American slaves were helped by wealthy Anglicans to form a "truly" African Christian nation in Sierre Leone from which potential was seen for Africans to evangelize their own continent

By early 20th century, European missions were all over the continent with Africans seeking to have a greater participation in the formation and leadership of their churches and at end of 20th century continent was divided roughly equally between Muslims, traditional religions, Protestants & Catholics In 18th and 19th centuries Great Britain took India and colonized much of southeast Asia with the French; the Germans entered China

Boxer Rebellion (1900) against Westerners and pro-Western Chinese Christians was crushed by Western armies but destabilized China, 1949 Communist Mao Tse-tung took over and repressed Christianity

Japanese wary of West but US Navy forced trade in 1853 and opened mission; Japanese nationalism of early 20th century pushed for traditional state Shinto and by WWII, Euro-Christians were forced out There's life in the Global South!! "Celebration," Keith Mallett www.art.com/products/p10059760-sa-i852514/keith-mallett-celebration.htm 2 Billion Worldwide Christians,
and the South continues to grow!
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