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The Philosophy of the Renaissance Period
Transcript of The Philosophy of the Renaissance Period
Education Before the Renaissance
Before the Renaissance, education was based/centered around the Church
Grammar, mathematics, astronomy, Latin, and philosophy were the core of the Middle Age's curriculum.
The daughters of the powerful and wealthy were the only girls that were allowed to attend certain/select courses.
meaning to be born again
started in Italy (early 14th century until the 17th century) and served as the transition period between Medieval and Modern times
marked by a humanistic revival of classical influence expressed in a flowering of arts and literature
beginning of modern science
brought about by geographic explorations of European superpowers
climaxed in the discovery of the New World
the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks
invention of the printing press
the Crusades whose participants borrowed the cultural ideals of the orientals and introduced them in Europe
An outlook or system of thought attaching prime importance to human rather than divine or supernatural matters. Humanist beliefs stress the potential value and goodness of human beings, emphasize common human needs, and seek solely rational ways of solving human problems.
a Renaissance cultural movement that turned away from medieval scholasticism and revived interest in ancient Greek and Roman thought.
was a philosophy that rejected supernaturalism, regarded man as a natural object and asserted the essential dignity and worth of man and his capacity to achieve self-realization through the use of reason and the scientific method.
characterized by the revival of classical letters,
an individualistic and critical spirit
a shift of emphasis from religious to secular concerns
started in Italy and later spread to the northern European countries
this type of humanism stressed the development of personal culture
freedom of the individuals were basic means in the achievement of a rich and fulfilled life.
started in Italy around 1333 and lasted for about a century
various figures became popular like:
"Five great enemies of peace inhabit with us — avarice, ambition, envy, anger and pride; if these were to be banished, we should infallibly enjoy perpetual peace."
"Rarely do great beauty and great virtue dwell together."
"Books have led some to learning and others to madness."
Vittorino de Feltre ( 1478 - 1446)
most prominent scholars who were charged to administer the court school founded by the Prince of Mantua
the court school aimed basically to train the young nobles of the court for political and social life, but later, the school became open even the children of the poor.
the school emphasized character formation, religion, and morality, but the raining also included swimming, fencing, boxing, dancing, and horseback riding.
Greek and Roman literature received the highest attention, these were taught toward appreciation of beauty
Realization in Da Feltre's work
The well-accepted educational tenets of modern-day education such as:
- adapting the training of each individual to his particular needs and capacities so as to arouse and motivate the students
- elimination of harsh punishment
Italian or Individualistic Humanism
Northern or Social Humanism
Brethren of the Common Life or Heironymias
organization of pious and social-minded men
facilitated the spread of Humanistic spirit in Northern Europe
it aims to combat the ignorance of the lower classes and to inspire in them, through the knowledge of the Scriptures, a higher ideal than that of mere physical existence.
aimed practically towards societal regeneration and the amelioration of human society as a whole.
desired to evolve an educational system based on the democratic principles
* could only made possible if the elementary and secondary schools as well as higher education would undergo reforms and improvement and be made available not only to the elite but to the masses as well.
Desiderius Erasmus (1467 - 1536)
teacher of Greek and Latin at Cambridge University, also in the Universities of Italy, Germany, etc.
He published the New Testament in Greek and later translated it into Latin
known to his educational works "Liberal Education of Children" and "On the Order of Study"
He suggested that education should be in accordance with the needs of the society
He believed that women should enjoy the same educational rights enjoyed by men.
Johannes Sturm (1507-1589)
is a notable educator of Strassburg, Germany
-founder of Gymnasium which was attended by a large number of students, mostly from noble families
-devoted exclusively to the teaching of Latin and Greek
- neglected the vernacular and the teaching of mathematics and science
-curriculum was not relevant to the needs of the time and physical training was neglected
Roger Ascham (1515-1568
- prominent English Humanist
-professor of Greek in Campbridge University and a private tutor of Queen Elizabeth
-wrote the book called
, published in 1571 after his death
-He condemned brutal corporal punishment and other "inhuman" practices
- known for his "double translation" method
-credited for being the first Englishman to write an educational-treatise in the vernacular
Popular Humanist from Northern Europe
imitation of the style of Cicero, especially as practiced by some writersand orators during the Renaissance.
Considered as humanistic education at its worst. The Ciceronians argued that the aim of education was to impart a perfect Latin style and that Cicero was master of that style. They held that all work in the school should be confined to the study of the writings of Cicero or his imitators and that all conversations and all writings should be in Cicerionian phrase
considered as the narrowing tendency in education and was the subject of long controversies and debates.
Realism (1300s to 1600s)
-type of education in which natural phenomena and social institutions rather than languages and literature are made the chief subjects of study
-considered as an educational philosophy which advocates that education should be concerned with the actualities of life and prepare for its concrete duties
this type of realism wished to secure a knowledge of human society and its institutions and of nature and man's reactions to nature, chiefly through a study of the classics for their content, not their form
Most notable of these educators and their ideas:
John Milton (1608 - 1674)
a poet who in 1644 published "Tractate on Education" which defined education as:
-"that which fits a man to perform justly and skillfully and magnanimously all the offices both in private and in "times of peace and war".
advocated that boys should study formal grammar and the content of classical literature.
Francois Rabelais (1483-1553)
a university scholar amd a satirist who considerably attacked the insincere, shallow, and formal life and education provided by the church and schools
advocated that all forms of studies shld be made pleasant, and that games and sports should be utilized towards the physical development of the child and for their practical application in his duties later in life
education according to him should be made attractive rather than compulsive
emphasized that study of foreign languages and gave stress to the importance of traveling so as to have contacts and intercourse with men from all walks of life.
suggested that subjects like history and politics should be offered in lieu of trivial grammar and rhetoric
Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592)
Well-known social realist
author of "Pedantry" and "the Education of Children"
lawyer and public official
he believed that education is to prepare the individual for the practical affairs of real life, and that bookish learning is not enough to attain this education end.
he believed that learning should be done under pleasant conditions, not under terror nor compulsion, and with proper provision for the care and training of the body
the aim of education was not to produce scholars and professionals but to prepare the young boys to live the life of a gentleman in the world of affairs and this aim would only be made possible if the boy had acquired virtue in the course of his education
this type of realism believed that knowledge comes primarily through the senses
education should conform to nature,
medium should be the vernacular
based upon the perception of natural objects and must utilize a new method called inductive.
Comenius considered as the first educator who advocated the use of visual aids in classroom teaching
writer of "Orbis Pictus Sensualium" or the "World of Sensible Things Pictured"
aim of education was " to know all things, do all things, and say all things"
Four Stages of Education
0 - 6 yrs. old School of mother's knee (the home)
6 - 12 yrs. old The vernacular (elementary school)
12 - 18 yr. old Latin School (secondary school)
18 - 24 yrs. old University
Principles n Education:
a. Older children should stay longer in school while younger ones should be in school only for a short period of the day
b. Each class should have uniformity in textbook, teacher, and tests.
c. Morning hours should be devoted for intellectual subjects while subjects for physical and aesthetic development should be given in the afternoon
d. No subject should be left unless thoroughly mastered
e. Education should be in accordance with the child's natural interest
f. The level of teaching should be suited to the child's understanding.
g. Effective learning is done through the use of the vernacular.
sense realist from England
opposed scholasticism and humanism
he wrote "The New Atlantis"
according to him, knowledge of nature is the only real and fruitful knowledge and should be the only basis of all scientific progress
known for his "Baconian Method"of research
Known for his effort to make scientific inquiry practical rather than metaphysical