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Origins of the Cold War 1943-1953

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Michael Ungar

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Transcript of Origins of the Cold War 1943-1953

The Cold War

From Wartime Allies to Post-War Enemies - was this inevitable?
Break of Alliances
IB Syllabus, Origins of the Cold War, Article 3
Stalin and Truman
Role of Leaders' Personalities
Historiography
The Marshall Plan, NATO and the Warsaw Pact

Background: the Post-War World in 1945
USSR
: Invaded twice by Germany
Loss of 26.6 million during the war - 8.7 million combat deaths. 30 yrs to restoration
Roughly a quarter of the Soviet Union's capital resources were destroyed
Land & cities destroyed
USA
: No battles on national soil
Loss of 440,000
Emerges with largest navy in the world, 2/3 world's gold reserves, 3/4 world's investment capital, & the atomic bomb
US GNP grew from $88.6 bil. in 1939 to $135 billion in 1944.

Battle of the Speeches
Stalin Feb 9 1946
Lenin was right: USSR should concentrate on world revolution - expansionist agenda
Confrontation bet. the Communist and Capitalist world

Stuns Washington: seen as a "declaration of WWIII"

West Responds: George F. Kennan - "The Long Telegram"
There is a conspiracy for Communist Expansion
Russian expansion will not take unnecessary risks
To deal with this threat: threaten force, or use force: "impervious to the logic of reason, they are not impervious to the logic of force"
CONTAINMENT
Source: Wetzel 16
Alliances - Why?
WWII - Allied against a common enemy: Germany, Italy, and Japan
Extreme ideological differences, domestic concerns, and maintaining of power - strife
Caused problems in making effective decisions: Percentages Agreement (Churchill and Roosevelt)
Iron Curtain Speech - Churchill
Early Confrontations
Analysis
Wetzel 16
The United Nations: A Source of Diffusion?
Despite hostilities and the break in alliances, the USSR, USA, and UK still wanted to pursue "mutually agreed policies"
This is seen in the establishment of the United Nations and its charter
Showed a common goal of post-war cooperation and peacekeeping policies
Had more power than the League of Nations
Removed governance by unanimity/consensus and equal veto powers and gave veto power to the Five Permanent Members
The job of world peace was passed to the US and USSR, but, because of their ideological differences, they were not effective team-mates
3 Dominant Views
Orthodox (1950's and 60's)
Product of a society influenced by the breakdown of wartime alliances, Soviet threat, and Communist expansion: place blame on USSR
Revisionist/New Left (1960's)
Product of anti-government cynicism after Vietnam War: place blame on US
Post-Revisionist (1980's-roughly the present)
More objective view: place blame on both sides
Histiorography
Conclusion
Sources Cited
Bastian, Peter. “Origins of the Cold War.” American History for
Australasian Schools. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Apr. 2012.
<http://www.anzasa.arts.usyd.edu.au/ahas/
cworigins_overview.html>.
Cannon, Martin, et al. 20th Century World History Course Companion.
Oxford: Oxford, 2009. Print.
Wetzel, David. “Lecture 17: Cold War - Origins.” History 162B. UC
Berkeley. 5 Apr. 2011. AAC file.
http://public.csusm.edu/MichelleWhite/Historiography.html
"1943: Allies United after Tehran Conference." BBC News. BBC. Web. 16 Apr. 2012. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/1/newsid_3535000/3535949.stm>.
"Harry Truman and the Potsdam Conference." Harry S. Truman Library and Museum. Web. 16 Apr. 2012. <http://www.trumanlibrary.org/teacher/potsdam.htm>.
"Potsdam Conference." Naval History and Heritage Command. Web. 16 Apr. 2012. <http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-dpl/hd-state/potsdam.htm>.
"World War II: Yalta Conference." About.com Military History. Web. 16 Apr. 2012. <http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/worldwarii/p/yalta.htm>.
"World War II: Yalta Conference." About.com Military History. Web. 16 Apr. 2012. <http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/worldwarii/p/yalta.htm>.
"Yalta Conference Foreshadows the Cold War." History.com. A&E Television Networks. Web. 16 Apr. 2012. <http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/yalta-conference-foreshadows-the-cold-war>.
Relevant Historiography
Orthodox
Herbert Feis "From Trust to Terror: The Onset of the Cold War" (New York, 1970) and "Churchill-Roosevelt-Stalin: The War They Waged and the Peace They Sought" (New York, 1957) - showed best the aspects of this viewpoint. Heavily influenced by McCarthyist, anti-Communist ideology and the Korean War, the first of the books offers a viewpoint that tends to see the USSR as the dominant aggressor in the Cold War. He describes the United States and the UK, or Churchill and Roosevelt, as nations that were forced to respond to the aggression presented by the USSR.
Revisionist
Thomas G. Paterson "Soviet-American Confrontation: Post-War Reconstruction and the Origins of the Cold War" (Baltimore, 1973) - one of the less radical of the revisionist texts. It still maintains a sense of American culpability in the war, but it makes some accomodations to the guilt of the other side.
William Appleman Williams "The Roots of the Modern American Empire" (New York, 1969) - highlights American culpability and asserts that Russia only responded to American aggression. Portrays American foreign policy as imperialistic and overtly capitalist: revisonists are not Communists, however, they do feel that excessive capitalism, as they saw in the United States, can cause damage to humankind.
Post-Revisionist
John Lewis Gladdis "We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History" (New York, 1997) - demonstrates the Post-Revisionist view that the both the USA and USSR were to blame for the outbreak of the Cold War. Accepts the view that Soviet policies were more focused on defense rather than world domination, as the members of NATO had feared. Also protect the United States and UK, suggesting that they could not have possibly known what Stalin's objectives were, and, as such, had to prepare for an attack.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
April 1949, the US signed a treaty with 12 European and North American nations - military
Established for mutual support and collective security -
USSR argued that it was an aggressive move against the Soviet bloc
Truman: purpose of NATO was defensive and with the UN covenant
Allowed for the US to be a strong voice in Western European affairs
Who do you think is to blame?
The Truman Doctrine

Truman Doctrine
Greece and Abandonment from UK
Turkey was seen as being a possible location for Communist expansion
First time the US had to consider anti-Communist-expansion policies
The Truman Doctrine - defined in a speech given by Harry Truman (March 12, 1947)
Established a means by which the US could provide economic and military support to the nations of Greece and Turkey
Designed to prevent the spread of communism Truman states a continuing US foreign policy to protect the free nations of South Eastern Europe
Josef Stalin
Harry Truman
Stalin - Truman Relations
Analysis
When Truman came to office, he presented strong anti-Communist views
Broke any remaining ties with Stalin
Stalin's foreign policy: responded to force or the threat of force (as outlined in the Long Telegram) - Truman recognized this and used it to his advantage
Truman developed military policy with fundamental goal: US at all times must be stronger than the Soviet bloc
Truman was continually annoyed and displeased with Stalin's willingness to break serious diplomatic agreements: considered him to be something of a cheat, politically and personally
Born December 18, 1878, in power 1922-1952, died March 5, 1953
Exerted supreme control over both the party and the state, and worked to establish himself in all aspects of communist life
Ousted communist leaders against his policies; was brutal and swift to destroy dissent or challenge
Promoted expansionist policy in the post-war period: advocated Leninist policies
Built-up Soviet security by instituting Soviet nuclear policy
Made a conscious choice to break from Western society and cooperation in his speech in Feb. 1946
Came into the war a relative novice after Roosevelt died in April 1945
Wasn't even aware of the Manhattan project until he came to office
By the time he was called to the Potsdam Conferences, he had little knowledge of US foreign policy
Established his own foreign policy in response to Stalin's and Churchill's speeches: Truman Doctrine and Containment policy
Developed military policy to defend against direct Soviet attack, followed the advised strategy set by Long Telegram (force or threat of force)
Did Truman and Stalin's relationship have a measureable effect on the course of the war?
The Marshall Plan
Analysis
Proposed by US Sec'y of State, George Marshall 1947
Provide massive economic assistance through grants & loans to the European nations in order to rebuild
Offered to all European nations; Soviet Union declined
At first, Congress did not want to give the money for Marshall Aid. But in Feb 1948, the Communists took power by force in Czechoslovakia, followed by the suspicious suicide of the popular minister Jan Masaryk.
Congress was scared, and voted for Marshall Aid
Established, along with the signing of NATO, a permanent US presence in Europe
Marshall Plan pumped billions of dollars worth of supplies, machinery, and food into Western Europe.
Western Europe’s recovery weakened the appeal of communism and opened new markets for trade.
The Warsaw Pact
Direct response to the formation of NATO Western Germany joining NATO
Essentially was a Soviet bloc version of NATO
Was a military alliance of USSR and Eastern European nations behind the Iron Curtain.
Effectively polarized the world, splitting between the two superpowers
How did the formation of NATO and the Warsaw Pact effect the course of the war? Did the Marshall Plan effect the balance of power in Europe?
Mutual suspicion & fear
McCarthyism
Ideological Differences
Soviet development of nuclear weapons and early nuclear policy U.S.
Joesph McCarthy was a senator from Wisconson who led a movement in the United States against "Communists" in the Government.
McCarthyism was most widely defined as the practice of making accusations of disloyalty, subversion, or treason without proper regard for evidence.
McCarthyism became almost like a witch hunt of sorts to satisfy the public's fear of communism.
This was on spurred on by McCarthy's wish for political gain by eliminated political opponents by accusing them of being communist.
McCarthyism became more prevalent in the public spot light due to seasantional media coverage which included political cartoons.
Diverging Goals for
the Post-War World

Yalta Conference
Seeds of Mistrust?
Potsdam

Truman takes command - No more coddling of Uncle Joe
Historiography
Formation of NATO

Background
Key Members and Goals
Poland – the last gov’t fled to Britain when Nazis invaded
But Soviets liberate Poland & set up a new Communist
gov’t.

FDR & Churchill argue that Poles should choose own gov’t and exiled leaders should return to power.

W.C: “This is what we went to war against Germany for,
that Poland should be free and sovereign.”

Analysis
Analysis
Influence
Stalin: gains upper-hand in future negotiations
Appeasement shows allies' weakness
Precedent to make gains in next conferences
3 Dominant Views
Orthodox (1950's and 60's)
Product of a society influenced by the breakdown of wartime alliances, Soviet threat, and Communist expansion: place blame on USSR
Revisionist/New Left (1960's)
Product of anti-government cynicism after Vietnam War: place blame on US
Post-Revisionist (1980's-roughly the present)
More objective view: place blame on both sides
Overview
Relevant Historiography
The Seeds of Mistrust Grow
The Iron Curtain Descends
Analysis
How did Potsdam usher in a new era within Europe and the U.S.?
Background
Analysis
How did NATO change relations between the U.S.S.R. and the United States?
Setting the Stage: Casablanca and Tehran Conference
Historiography
Griffith, Robert. The Politics of Fear - Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate. (Lexington, KY: The University Press of Kentucky), 1970.


"...by 1950 when it seemed obvious to even the most casual observer that some type of internal security legislation was in the works, if for no other reason than as a symbolic propitiation of public fear." (p 117)

"Yet because [The McCarran Internal Security Act (1950) and the Communist Control Act (1954)] typified the collapse of congressional courage and good sense in the face of the communist issue, they help to explain a great deal about McCarthy and McCarthyism." (p 31)

"if instrumental politics were responsible for McCarthy's defeat, they were also responsible for his rise and for the prolongation of his power, and that between 1950 and 1954 the politics of the possible were also the politics of fear." (p 320)

Oshinsky, David M. A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy. (New York, NY: The Free Press), 1983.


"[McCarthy] and McCarran did have something in common. They were both producers and products of the ugly climate that gripped America in 1950. And they both knew how to exploit that climate for their own political ends." (p 174)

"[McCarthy] could have been stopped rather quickly. Robert Taft, J. Edgar Hoover, Dwight D. Eisenhower - any of them could have halted McCarthy but all of them had reasons for remaining supportive or simply aloof." (p 507)

Shrecker, Ellen. No Ivory Tower: McCarthyism and the Universities. (New York, NY: Oxford University Press), 1986.


"In 1951, after the passage of the McCarran Act, the State Department began to withhold passports from political dissents and confiscate those of people who were already abroad." (p 296)

"The academy did not fight McCarthyism. It contributed to it...in its collaboration with McCarthyism, the academic community behaved just like every other major institution in American life. Such a discovery is demoralizing, for the nation's colleges and universities have traditionally encouraged higher expectations." (p 340)

Shrecker, Ellen. The Age of McCarthyism: A Brief History with Documents. (New York, NY: Palgrave), 2002.


"[McCarthy's] antics distracted the attention of contemporaries and historians and caused them to overlook the more profound and enduring aspects of the anti-communist crusade of the 1940s and 1950s." (p 1)
Analysis
What role did McCarthyism play in causing the American public to always have fear of a Soviet Threat?
Right after the end of World War II it became clear that the conflicting ideologies of the United States and the USSR would come in contact with one another. A few key differences really assured their incompatible nature.
Casablanca
January 1943
FDR and Churchill meet
No cross channel invasion
Angers Stalin as Soviet armies are are fighting 80% of German armed forces
Tehran
November 28-December 1, 1943
Soviet Embassy in Tehran, Iran
“Big Three”-Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill
Key Motives and Goals
Conference Goals
Defeat Germany
Sets stage for Yalta Conference
Shows decline in British power and influence

US
USSR
Government: Communist State

Economy: Marxist-Leninist Social economy

Social: Atheist and no set moral system

Victor Sebestyen
U.S. allowed Russian spheres of influence
Willingly divided the west and the east into competing spheres of influence “owned” by the U.S. and U.S.S.R.
Fraser J. Harbutt
Both sides were responsible and equally aggressive
William Hardy McNeill
Soviet aggression in trying to expand, broke promise with elections in Poland
John Lewis Gaddis, Martin Leffler
Different ideologies and lack of understanding between nations
February 4-11, 1945 in the Livadia Palace near the Crimea
Re-establish and Re-organize the Post-War World
In Stalin's territory
FDR- health concerns
Britain-economically and politically impaired
Government: Democracy

Economy: Capitalist


Social: Religious and Traditional Christian Values
FDR
Wants Soviet military support in Japan
Appease Stalin, avoid conflict
Winston Churchill
Free elections in Eastern Europe
Redemption
Josef Stalin
Spheres of influence in Eastern Europe, esp. Poland
Eviscerate Germany
Broad Goals
Re-organize Europe (according to own security needs)
Demilitarization and Denazification
How did the Yalta Conference influence future conflicts?
Moral Equivalence and belief in Moral Superiority on both sides.
Stems from Treaty of Brussels signed in 1948
Berlin Blockade and Soviet aggression/sphere of influence in the Eastern Bloc—need for defense for the rest of Europe
Military alliance of 12 North American and European countries
Members: Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, UK, U.S., Canada, Portugal, Italy, Norway, Denmark, and Iceland
Collective security
Implementation
Soviets-perceive NATO as a threat and violates UN
Led to the standardization of military technology
Truman-defensive alliance to prevent aggression
Deepens divide between U.S. and U.S.S.R. and increases mutual suspicion
Analysis
How did the US and USSR's ideological affect how the Cold War played out?

On August 29th, 1949 the Soviet government detonated its first nuclear weapon. The arms race of the Cold War had begun.
In order to ensure their own safety both the United States and the USSR believed it was necessary to stockpile large amounts of nuclear weapons to ensure that a balance of power was not upset by one country having more weapons than the other.
Soviets originally developed nuclear weapons to protect the eastern Soviet bloc states as well as deter them from seeking independence.
US & USSR developed a "No first Strike " policy with nuclear weapons.
Both nations lived in fear of each other and thus the concept of brinksmanship came to being with nations being on constant alert and ready to retaliate at a moments notice.
Both nations adopt a policy of deterrence due to M.A.D. or mutual assured destruction if a first strike ever occurred.
Analysis
How did the development of nuclear weapons shape the US and USSR relations during the early Cold War?
Potsdam, Germany from July 16 to August 2, 1945 before the end of the war. Churchill & FDR gone from the scene

Soviet sphere of influence in the East - boots on the ground “Whoever occupies a territory also imposes his own social system. . . . It cannot be otherwise.”

Truman's trump card: the atomic bomb - bully pulpit to Uncle Joe?
No appeasement
- this time it's Stalin
Reparations from own zone - restore German economy or see it turn communist -
what is the pre-war lesson?

Attlee: Britain needs to focus on domestic affairs
Soviet-liberated countries of Eastern Europe become "satellite" nations.
Govt's had to be Communist & follow policies that the Soviets approved.
Origins: 1945 - 1953
What does this image mean to you?
Final agreement merely declared that a "more broadly based" government should be established in Poland. Stalin accepts small number of "free" representatives in government. Free elections were called for sometime in the future.

Roosevelt & Churchill agreed to recognize the Polish government set up by the Soviets.

Many U.S. officials believed the agreement condemned Poland to a communist future.

Roosevelt felt that he had no choice since the Soviet army was occupying Poland & needed Soviet help against Japan.
Declaration of Liberated Europe :
Yalta leaders agree to principle of “the right of all people to choose the form of government under which they will live.”
The Allies promised that the people of Europe would be allowed “to create democratic institutions of their own choice.”

Promised to create temporary governments that represented “all democratic elements” and pledged “the earliest possible establishment through free elections of governments responsive to the will of the people.”

Germany: The Big Three agree to divide Germany & Berlin into four zones. Name the four powers.

Stalin demands Germans pay heavy reparations for the war damage it caused.

US agrees, but reparations to be based on Germany’s ability to
pay & use goods and products instead of cash for reparations.

Allies allowed to remove industrial machinery from Germany as reparations. How will this be sorted out?

Churchill visits the US in March 1946 and delivers a speech that captures the state of the world - Divided by an "Iron Curtain."
Exit Ticket:
What lesson is Churchill trying to teach?
Would you rather live in a post-Cold
war world or in world dominated by
a Cold War?
CONFRONTATIONS IN IRAN & TURKEY
IRAN: joint occupation of the country in WWII to prevent German access to oil and keep trade route open to USSR

Post-war agmt for Allies to depart, Soviets drag their heels & alarm US - UK. Why?

US military: protection of Iran in the American national interest - source of oil & to protect American-controlled oil wells in Saudi Arabia.

Iran = territorial “cushion” by preventing any Soviet attack from overrunning the Middle East.

Crisis in Turkey:
Straits of the Dardanelles
=vital route from Soviet Black Sea ports to the
Mediterranean.

August 1946, Stalin demanded joint control of the Dardanelles with Turkey.

Undersec’y Dean Acheson: Soviet plan to control the Mideast & President must make a show of force.
Air-Carriers sent to Turkey & Support for Greek resistance to communist rebels
In our opinion the primary objective of the Soviet Union is to obtain control over Turkey. We believe that if the Soviet Union succeeds in introducing into Turkey armed forces with the ostensible purpose of enforcing the joint control of the Straits, the Soviet Union will use these forces in order to obtain control over Turkey…. In our opinion, therefore, the time has come when we must decide that we shall resist will all means at out disposal any Soviet aggression and in particular, because the case of Turkey would be so clear, any Soviet aggression against Turkey. In carrying this policy our words and acts will only carry conviction to the Soviet Union if they are formulated against the background of an inner conviction and determination on our part that we cannot permit Turkey to become the object of Soviet aggression.
— Dean Acheson, Telegram to the Secretary of State at Paris – August 8, 1946

The Berlin Crisis
George Kennan, the American ambassador in Moscow sent a telegram to the Department of State detailing his views on the Soviet Union, and U.S. policy toward the communist state. Kennan’s analysis provided one of the most influential underpinnings for America’s Cold War policy of containment.

". . . [Soviet] Internal policy (is) devoted to increasing in every way strength and prestige of Soviet state: ... [it makes] great displays to impress outsiders; [while there is] continued secretiveness about internal matters, designed to conceal weaknesses and to keep opponents in dark.
Wherever it is considered timely and promising, efforts will be made to advance Soviet power. For the moment, these efforts are restricted to certain neighboring points conceived of here as being of immediate strategic necessity, such as northern Iran (and)Turkey . . .

An essential part of any successful action on the part of the United States is an understanding on the part of the people of America of the character of the problem and the remedies to be applied. Political passion and prejudice should have no part. With foresight, and a willingness on the part of our people to face up to the vast responsibility which history has clearly placed upon our country, the difficulties I have outlined can and will be overcome.

The Long Telegram - George Kennan
USSR response to Marshall Plan
I know not with what weapons World War III will be fought, but World War IV will be fought with sticks and stones.
NATO's First Big Test
Hungary 1956
When the Hungarians were allowed some reforms from Soviet control, they sought greater freedoms and even declared their break from the Warsaw Pact. The Soviets did not respond kindly.
How Many Nuclear
Bombs would it take
to destroy the world?
Germany had invaded Russia twice in less than
30 years. The Soviets wanted to keep Germany weak
& make sure that the countries between Germany
and the Soviet Union were under Soviet control.
Soviets hold to belief that communism would overthrow capitalism - Soviet Union should encourage and aid communism in other nations. Soviet leaders also accepted Lenin’s theory that capitalist countries eventually would try to destroy communism. Russian Front, A-bomb, & intervention in Revolution
Many American officials believed that the Depression had caused Hitler's rise to power & Japan's quest for domination of resources in Asia. Had the nations built trade - not tariffs - the world might have avoided war.

By 1945 President Roosevelt and his advisers were convinced that economic growth was the key to world peace. They wanted to promote economic growth by increasing world trade. FDR wanted to revive German economic power and integrate it into a world trade system - but keep it demilitarized.
Exiled Democratic gov't v. Soviet-backed Communists
Kennan: Soviets’ had a traditional “Russian sense of insecurity” and fear of the West, Since Soviets believed that they were in a long-term historical struggle against, it was impossible to reach any permanent settlement with them.

Soviet system had several major economic and political weaknesses. If U.S. could keep the Soviets from expanding their power, it was only a matter of time until Soviet system collapsed. Communism could be beaten without going to war.

The Long Telegram (1946)defines policy of
containment
—keep communism confined in its territory through diplomatic, economic, and military actions.
In the long run, it pledged the
United States to fight communism worldwide.
West Germany Is Founded

By early 1948, U.S. officials had concluded that the Soviets were deliberately trying to undermine Germany’s economy.

United States, Great Britain, and France
announced that they were merging their zones in
Germany and in Berlin - also allow the Germans to have their own government & currency but no military - creating the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany)
Stems from Treaty of Brussels signed in 1948
Berlin Blockade and Soviet aggression/sphere of influence in the Eastern Bloc—need for defense for the rest of Europe
Military alliance of 12 North American and European countries
Members: Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, UK, U.S., Canada, Portugal, Italy, Norway, Denmark, and Iceland
Collective security
It is useless to try to discover who made the first move to break the alliance. It is impossible to trace the first ‘broken promise’ ... In this ‘marriage of convenience’, the thought that a divorce was inevitable had been in the mind of each partner from the beginning.

Written by the historian Isaac Deutscher, Stalin (1969)
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