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Rizal's Trial & Execution

Life of Rizal before he died. Arrest, trials and execution.
by

Kathryn Tse

on 13 October 2014

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Transcript of Rizal's Trial & Execution

Jose Rizal's Trial & Execution
In 1893, George Taufer was afflicted with an eye disease; a double cataract rendered him blind. It was at this stage that Josephine was recommended by Julio Llorente to see Rizal.

By this time, he was a political exile in Dapitan
In late 1891 he moved to Hong Kong and practiced as an ophthalmic surgeon. He had an eye clinic at the Rednaxela Terrace.
In early 1895, two and a half years into his exile, Josephine Bracken & Taufer sailed to Manila, and went to Dapitan to seek the help of Rizal, but Taufer's double cataract was beyond Rizal's help.
Meeting Josephine Bracken
Josephine Bracken
Rizal and Bracken instantly fell in love with each other, while there had been a few other women in his past, Josephine alone was the one he sought to marry.
Rizal applied for marriage. However, the parish priest of Dapitan, Father Pedro Obach, refused to do so. He would only agree to the ceremony if Rizal could get permission from the Bishop of Cebu, but this would only be granted he retracted his criticism of the Church. The couple exchanged their vows before God in their own way. The couple lived as de facto husband and wife.
The evening, few hours before his execution on December 30, 1896 Rizal was married to Bracken in a religious ceremony officiated by Father Vicente Balanguer. The Church authorities proclaimed that at that meeting, Rizal had retracted his Church criticisms and was allowed to marry her.
Bracken and Rizal, lived together in Barangay Talisay as husband and wife.
Around early March of 1896, Josephine gave birth prematurely to a stillborn child- a boy who was named Francisco
George Taufer
Rizal received a letter from a longtime Austrian friend Ferdinand Blumentritt and advised him to offer his services as military doctor in Cuba, which was then in the throes of a revolution and raging yellow fever epidemic.
Volunteer in Cuba
Blumentritt
On December 1985, Rizal sent a letter to Governor General Ramon Blanco rendering his service for Cuba.
It was only on July 30, 1896 when Rizal received a letter from Governor Blanco, accepting his offer.
There was a hidden agenda on why Rizal wanted to be a volunteer doctor in Cuba. Rizal wanted to learn from the revolution in Cuba of techniques and strategies on how to win a war.
At midnight of July 31, 1896, Jose Rizal left Dapitan on board the steamer
España
to Manila
After almost a week, on August 6, 1896, España arrived in Manila.
He was given accommodation in a Spanish cruiser
Castilla
and stayed there for nearly a month. He was detained on board the ship .
Rizal was supposedly to board the
Isla de Luzón
for Spain
While waiting for the next mail boat that would sail for Spain, the revolution erupted.
Rizal never set foot in Cuba.
Arrest
Rizal learned about the revolution. He was worried , but he kept his plan to leave for abroad. He had committed himself to the volunteer job in Cuba.
Aboard the steamer,
Isla de Panay
, Rizal left Manila for Barcelona, Spain on September 2, 1896.
He was arrested when he reached Barcelona on October 3, 1896 and it was an order from Governor-General Blanco
October 6, Rizal was transferred to the prison Montjuic Castle
General Eulogio Despujol, informed Rizal that he would be shipped back to the Philippines.
In the evening of the same day, aboard the steamer
Colon
, Rizal left Barcelona for Manila.
Regidor and Lopez dispatched telegrams to an English lawyer in Singapore to rescue Rizal from the Spanish steamer by means of a writ of habeas corpus.
The writ, however, was denied and Rizal remained prisoner in the ship.
The Colon reached Manila on November 3, 1896 and Rizal was then quietly transferred to Fort Santiago
Spanish authorities gather evidence against Rizal while some Filipinos who had been recognized at his side were brutally tortured to implicate Rizal.
Rizal’s brother was also arrested and tortured but never said anything against his younger brother.
Deodato Arellano
Dr, Pio Valenzuela
Moises Salvador
Jose Dizon
Domingo Franco
Temoteo Paez
Pedro Serrano Laktaw
November 20, 1896 preliminary investigation was conducted with Colonel Francisco Olive acting as the Judge Advocate
Investigation
He was subjected to a 5 day investigation, Rizal was informed about his charges and been given the chance to answer the questions.
Two kinds of evidence were presented against Rizal
Documentary evidence
letters which allegedly implicate Rizal in the Propaganda movement

transcripts of speech wherein his name was used by the Katipunan

his poems which were highly nationalistic in nature.
Testimonial evidence
consisted of the oral testimonies of Rizal's various acquaintances
After the preliminary investigation, the Judge Advocate General,
Don Nicolas de la Peña
, submitted the following recommendations:
(1) the accused be immediately brought to trial;

(2) he should be kept in prison;

(3) an order of attachment be issued against his property as an indemnity; and

(4) he should be defended in court by an army officer.
Given with privilege to choose his own defense counsel,
Lt. Luis Taviel de Andrade
was chosen
Charges against Rizal
He was accused of being
"the principal organizer and the living soul of the Filipino insurrection, the founder of societies, periodicals and books dedicated to fomenting and propagating ideas of rebellion."
he pleaded not guilty to the crime of rebellion.
On December 15, Rizal wrote a manifesto in his prison cell at Fort Santiago.
The manifesto is suppressed. Thus, it was never issued to the people.
Trial
The trial of Rizal commenced on December 26, 1896 at the Cuartel de España.
Rizal was tried before a court-martial for rebellion, sedition, and conspiracy, was convicted on all three charges, and sentenced to death. The decision of the court martial ordered Rizal to be shot at 7:00 in the morning of December 30, 1896 at Bagumbayan Field.
Rizal's Last Day and His Execution
Rizal spent his last 24 hours in his death cell where he received members of his family and writes his letter of farewell.
By 6:30am, Rizal set on his walk from Fort Santiago to the Bagumbayan square
The firing squad was composed of Filipino soldiers of the colonial army, but behind them stood a detachment of Spanish soldiers
Rizal, ready and calm, took his position opposite his executioners.
And even at the moment of his fall, Rizal turns his body so that he ends up lying on his back, with his face to the sun.
His last words were those of Jesus Christ: "consummatum est",--it is finished. Jose Rizal died at exactly 7:03 in the morning of December 30.
He was secretly buried in Pacò Cemetery in Manila with no identification on his grave.
The ashes of Rizal were transferred to the Rizal Mausoleum
F I N
Presented By:
Nancy S. Liboon
Charles Jude R. Alair
Kathryn Anne Y. Tse
Full transcript