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The Spatial Textbook: Why?

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D.J. Hennager

on 25 May 2018

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Transcript of The Spatial Textbook: Why?

The Spatial Textbook: Why?
Access to Education

A spatial textbook provides a
bottom-up and top-down approach so students will see the path
. The path will lead to examples that demonstrate
to the students future profession. In nursing, the student will see the
connection between the material being learned and the pathophysiology
they will need to grasp in
their profession. The path also
Learning Efficiency
We need to
plan to teach
in order to
increase the effectiveness and efficiencies of the
learning process
Bloom's Taxonomy

to Enhance Creativity

Schema in Memory
to Increase Learning

Long-term memory is constructed of large concept maps termed schema.
Learning involves building schema
and then using established schema to more efficiently add new information.
Presenting information spatially will enhance the formation of schema
and allow
students to move on to
finding connections
to process information more
The Linear
to Spatial

The linear nature of the textbook was once required to store large volumes of information in a small space.
Having a linear primary textbook drove linear activities in the classroom (i.e., read the textbook and take a multiple-choice test).
With the advancement of the web, we can now store information in the
spatial format of concept maps, videos, etc.

As we move to spatial sources of
information there is an increase drive
to do spatial type exercises
Support Multiple
Learning Styles

A well-rounded student will be
exposed to multiple learning styles
while also allowing them to
find advanced understanding in their preferred learning style
with Purpose

Web-based learning emphasizes
a continual cycle of learning.
Assessments should emphasize the stages of
critical thinking: 1) inquiry, 2) curation, 3) collaboration, 4) conceptualization and 5) transformation
What problems does the spatial textbook solve? Essentially, the spatial textbook will be a designed map to unify many of the reformations that are occurring in education right now by making education more universal and tailored towards critical thinking and creativity. Essentially, flipped classrooms, problem-based learning, peer instruction, and collaboration are noble goals in education but they lack a cohesive design.
1. Increase access to education
a. With the top 10% in India numbering more than our entire student population, we need to modify our educational philosophy to make education more universal and approachable. In short, education needs to be more of a pump than a filter.
i. Motivation
1. Top-down processing and bottom-up processing
a. The student always knows why the information is important because the information is tied to pathologies and clinical relevance.
b. Connections allow students to see the bigger picture and have those aha moments.
2. Increased relevance by easing the learning of foundational information, students and instructors can push into more physiology and pathology.
ii. Increased efficiency of learning
1. Spatial vs. Linear thinking: Textbooks have led us down a path of linear thinking as the text was the only way to store large amounts of information in a small space. With the revolution in computers and the information age, the web is now the most efficient way to store information. This introduces a more spatial type of thinking.
a. This is evident in the way we are moving our assessments.
i. Read the book and take a multiple choice test is very linear and does not encourage critical thinking as there is usually a one-to-one pairing of a fact with an outcome. The multiple-choice test further emphasized this thinking.
b. When on the web, learning can go in multiple directions.
i. The keys now are curation, fact-checking, conceptualization.
2. Multiple styles
a. Students will be more efficient if they can choose the path that creates the most learning for them.
b. The spatial textbook will combine text-based and audio-visual learning.
3. Education with the purpose of job success. Competencies vs. Objectives:
a. The old model was to throw facts at the student and filter them on their ability to reproduce those facts.
i. This was the filter model
ii. We filtered on objectives (facts) rather than competencies (skills).
iii. A more efficient education will focus on competencies.
b. A more efficient education will figure out the skills that need to be engendered before the educational process begins a la Grant Wiggins Understanding by Design
i. The format will make it apparent what the big ideas are in education
ii. Skills are what make a person employable. It is more than likely that future funding at colleges will be tied to “success.” The definition of success will probably not be how many facts someone can memorize but how well they can perform skills (competencies).
2. Improve education through emphasis on critical thinking and creativity.
a. Even Bloom’s seems a little archaic now in the sense that we need to realize that the web takes us through learning cycles; we inquire, we find various sources and curate, we conceptualize, we share, and we ask new questions.
i. Textbooks took us through the material in a linear model.
ii. The web allows constant building and adapting. This better demonstrates the cycling and spatial format of modern learning.
1. Bloom’s needs to be more cyclical
a. Enter my model of critical thinking
b. Creativity is about seeing relevant solutions that solve problems. Problems are solved when people see connections that have not been seen before. Spatial thinking improves critical thinking skills.


Organizing information in a format that makes learning more efficient will help students get to the higher portions of this process (i.e.,
organization increases creativity and problem solving
Beyond the Facts
Students should be challenged with assessments that cover a wide range of thinking skills.
Assessments Based on Bloom's Taxonomy
Increased Formative Assessment:
Assessment should guide and motivate students as much as filter.
Right Brain:
Many beneficial skills are difficult to assess. This does not diminish their value.
knowledge of terminology

knowledge of specific details and
knowledge of classifications and

knowledge of principles and

knowledge of theories, models,
and structures
knowledge of subject-specific
skills and algorithms

knowledge of subject-specific
techniques and methods

knowledge of criteria for
determining when to use
appropriate procedures
strategic knowledge

knowledge about cognitive tasks,
including appropriate contextual
and conditional knowledge

(clarifying, paraphrasing, representing, translating)

(illustrating, instantiating)

(categorizing, subsuming)

(abstracting, generalizing)
extrapolating, interpolating, predicting)

(contrasting, mapping, matching)

(constructing models)
(carrying out)
(discriminating, distinguishing, focusing, selecting)

(finding coherence, integrating, outlining, parsing, structuring)

(coordinating, detecting, monitoring, testing)



Love of learning
Appreciation of the aha
Finding personal connection to the content.
Practice Tests
Clicker Questions
Pre-check essay questions.
Daniel Pink
Reproducing Electrolyte Charts
On the following pages are homeostatic diagrams for sodium, potassium, calcium, blood pressure, pH, and pure water. Please fill in the dashed boxes. The points may vary per box depending on the number of correct answers that should be in each box.
Reproducing the Immune Diagram
Practice Tests
Clicker Questions
Practice Tests
Clicker Questions
Following Biopac Protocols
Clicker Questions
Practical: Recall the method of scientific research
Exam 1 Essay 1: Cardiac Output Chart
1.I drew on the board a chart that described some 20 odd factors that alter cardiac output. Describe the factors that influence cardiac output (1 point per appropriate item/20 points required).
Clicker Questions
Clicker Questions
Exam 1 Essay 3: Arteries and Veins
3. Please list 10 arteries and 10 veins. Right and left of the same artery would count only as one point but similarly named arteries and veins are acceptable.
Clicker Questions
Practical: RBC from r. atrium to r. atrium
Immune Drawing: 1st and 2nd Lines of Defense
Describe how the human body defends itself against bacterial/viral assaults. That is, describe, in full, the functioning of the immune system as we discussed in class and drew on the board. Please include all three lines of defenses for 98 points and the differentiated instruction for an additional 15 points.
Clicker Questions
Exam 1 Essay 1: Identify WBC and indicate associated pathology
Describe the cells shown below both anatomically and physiologically: that is, name what they are called and describe distinguishing characteristics as well as describe what role they play in the immune system.
Using on-line sources to research pathologies
Performing Scientific Research
Predict and ECG trace from a given heart pathology (heart block, bundle branch block, infarction).
Exam 4 Essay 1: Connections in Electrolytes
A major theme of the past module on urinary, fluids, electrolytes, and pH was to appreciate the interconnectivity of human physiology. For example, vomiting may lead to alkalosis, which may lead to hypokalemia, which can then lead to muscle weakness. Please provide 10 examples of this connectivity, as in the example above. Each connection should have at least four components. If you make a 5-step connection, that is worth one additional point.
Performing Scientific Research
Performing Scientific Research: Developing protocols to collect valid data.
Exam 1 Essay 2: Evaluate cardiac drugs affects on major mechanisms of heart function; afterload, HR, SV.
2.Please describe the physiological effects of five cardiac drugs within the context of what we learned in class (5 points per cardiac drug). Be sure to include at least one drug from each of the main categories: those that affect afterload, inotropic drugs, and chronotropic drugs. You may do two additional drugs for 5 points each of additional credit (please do not duplicate a drug’s primary target, be sure the additional drugs affect different ion channels or have different strategies for decreasing afterload).
Performing Scientific Research: Conducting a peer review of the research of others.
Performing Scientific Research: Exploring the strengths and weaknesses on the groups' results.
Performing Scientific Research
Exam 3 Essay 1: Evaluate each step in respiration as being impacted by various respiratory pathologies.
Using our lectures on the respiratory system, please describe five respiratory pathologies that will affect the steps in respiration. Each step in respiration should be represented at least once and most pathologies will affect multiple steps in respiration (5 points per pathology, 25 points required).
Performing Scientific Research: Discover one's strengths and weaknesses in working in groups.
Reviewing and challenging test question to improve argumentation skills.
Recognizing cues given in tests to improve test-taking techniques.
Performing ECG
Performing Blood Typing
Measuring Hematocrit
Performing a Talquist Test
Performing PFTs
Interpreting ECGs and eliminating abnormalities.
Identifying obstructive vs. restrictive lung disorders with PFTs.
Interpreting urinalysis and identifying common pathologies
Exam 3 Essay 2: Describing Digestive Pathologies
Please describe five pathologies of the digestive system. Your description should include a brief description of the pathology and discuss the relevant effect on digestive system anatomy and physiology (1 point per pathology, 5 points required).
Exam 1 Essay 2: Describing Cardiac Drug Action
2.Please describe the physiological effects of five cardiac drugs within the context of what we learned in class (5 points per cardiac drug). Be sure to include at least one drug from each of the main categories: those that affect afterload, inotropic drugs, and chronotropic drugs. You may do two additional drugs for 5 points each of additional credit (please do not duplicate a drug’s primary target, be sure the additional drugs affect different ion channels or have different strategies for decreasing afterload).
Practical: Identify histological pathologies: anthracosis, bronchogenic carcinoma, emphysema, hypertensive kidney, cirrhosis, hepatitis, cancer of the liver.
Practical: Identify gross pathologies: emphysema, hypertensive kidney, cirrhosis of the liver
Exam 2 Essay 3: Breakdowns in Immune Homeostasis
Please describe what break-downs in homeostasis such as burns and cystic fibrosis tell us about the importance of barriers in immune defense.
Clicker Questions
Immune Drawing: 3rd Line of Defense
Describe how the human body defends itself against bacterial/viral assaults. That is, describe, in full, the functioning of the immune system as we discussed in class and drew on the board. Please include all three lines of defenses for 98 points and the differentiated instruction for an additional 15 points.
Cognitive Dimension
Knowledge Dimension
Competency-Based Instruction
College is not about facts (objectives), it is about skills (competencies).
Grading for excellence.
No missed competencies.
Daniel Pink
Post-Grade Era:
Students should be measured on accomplishing competencies rather than grades.
Find -> Curate -> Conceptualize
Steps in Critical Thinking:
Critical thinking is a process that can be taught.
Seek Sources
Take the argument apart and examine as many facets as you can.
question assumptions and have an open mind
analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the evidence.
Be unemotional and argue both sides of the issue.
Collaborate effectively
identify and eliminate rheological fallacies.
Varied Instruction:
When instructors use different methods/examples to teach the same competencies, the cohort in later courses will be seeded with students with diversified experiences that can allow them to tutor one-another.
Education should not filter based on the memorization of facts but rather should
boost students to
new skills

PDF ebooks
eTexts as pdfs
Multiple-Choice Tests
Linear Textbooks
Objectives are lists of facts which are at their nature linear.
Add some interaction with links but is essentially still a linear presentation of information
With a fact being matched to a single answer, MCQ maintain linear thought
Confidence-Based Questions
While asking the student their confidence can assess when students fail to critique their thinking, the questions are still linear MCQ.
The World Wide Web
While the background of the web is spatial, much of the information is still presented in large lots of linear information
By presenting concepts as big picture relationships, infographics begin to break up the linearity of information
Concept Mapping
Concept mapping demonstrates the multiple pathways information can be related.
Adaptive Learning
With a concept map in the background, adaptive learning guides the learner through the concept map at different rates to improve efficiency.
Touch Interfaces
Touch screens allow more interactive navigation; select various paths, change scale, etc.
Peer Instruction
Interacting with another person, and engaging those various possibilities requires spatial learning.
Problem-Based Learning
PBL should allow students to play with application of material, finding multiple solutions to a case study. Such multiple solutions require spatial thining.
Flipped Instruction
A truly flipped classroom allows acquisition of foundational knowledge outside of class so class time can be spent exploring along a loose outline.
Prezi-based presentation
Zooming in and out of content provides a constant reminder of context as well as multiple pathways.
Spatial Textbook
A concept map based presentation of material with competencies, .
Skills can be learned in many ways with the basic intent to apply those skills to new areas of inquiry. Creating diverse tools for learning is spatial.
Since the printing press, the textbook as been the simplest method to create portable information. Textbooks present information linearly and thus drive linear type activities in the classroom; i.e., read the textbook and take a multiple-choice test.
Spatial Textbooks
With the
top 10% in India numbering more than our entire student population
, we need to find ways to access and retain more students.
Technology can either make education cheaper or make it more successful.
As an educator, I would like to use technology to increase the learning and acquisition of critical thinking skills for the
betterment of this country
and of humans in general.
What is the spatial textbook?
Activities laid out in a 2D (perhaps 3D) map designed for understanding. The map will be follow Grant Wiggins method to ensure that each activity is mapped to a larger understanding.
Activities will be based on a list of objectives and competencies
Multiple methods of gaining the information will be provided to meet the objectives and competencies.
active learning
Formative assessments and active-learning exercises will be provided to allow the student to self-assess their understanding.
Summative assessments will be mapped to the competencies for that module and the student will receive input on competencies to back fill.
By Design
(Grant Wiggins)
To know where you are going, you have to know where you want to end up. What are the big ideas in A&P?

Trends? See the
NMC Horizon Report

Education is demanding
more innovative pedagogical practices.
What if we could
wrap up many of the current trends in education into one space
: trends like the
flipped classroom, Bloom's taxonomy, Understanding by Design, creativity, critical thinking, androgogy, variety in learning styles, competencies, analytics, social collaboration
, etc. I would propose that each of these trends are a result of the recognition that we are moving away from the linearity of the textbook into the spatial arrangement of information as found
on the world wide web. Thus, I propose the
of a spatial textbook to unify these trends
while improving education and making
advanced learning accessible to
more people

In more advanced iterations, use 3D modeling software to make the content have depth.
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