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Appealing to Your Audience: Logos, Ethos, and Pathos
Transcript of Appealing to Your Audience: Logos, Ethos, and Pathos
Logos is an appeal to logic, or a valid use of reasoning. This is where we get our word "logical." Logos draws on our sense of right or sound arguments. Logic deals with our mind's understanding.
Logical appeals, which engage through logos, include
sales, coupons, rebates, loyalty cards (Buy One, Get One Free; % off; savings of $; rebates)
convenience (easy to use, on-the-go, microwaveable, ready to use, easy assembly)
satisfies a need, especially an essential or immediate one
including physiological (food, drink, sleep), safety, guidance, etc.
protection (warranties, service, repair, etc.)
statistics and facts
WATCH OUT for fallacies (false reasoning), which include bandwagon appeals, ad hominem, false dilemmas, hasty generalizations, red herrings, slippery slopes, etc.
Ethos is an appeal to ethics, or a sense of right and wrong. This is where we get our word "ethical." Ethos draws on a sense of trustworthiness, credibility, and character. Ethics deals with both our mind's and heart's understanding.
Ethical appeals, which engage through ethos, include
disclaimers ("Drink responsibly," "Check with your doctor," etc.)
political ads ("Choose the best/right candidate for our state")
donations (TOMS, Susan G. Komen pink products, RED)
conservation (preserve the environment, protect animals and children)
opportunities (serve your country or community)
heritage, history, and tradition (est. DATE, iconic logos and slogans, vintage style)
WATCH OUT for celebrity or professional endorsements, poor research/poor usage of research, false sense of heritage or tradition, etc.
Pathos is an appeal to emotions, or a sense of connection with the subject. This is where we get our word "pathetic," "empathy," and "empathetic." Pathos draws on a sense of feelings, tones, and moods, especially the dominant mood (overall emotion). Emotions deals with our heart's understanding.
Emotional appeals, which engage through pathos, include
images to induce a feeling (orphan or abandoned children or animals, party or family, etc.)
colors to convey or mirror a mood (blue/green for calm, red for excitement or anger)
facial expressions (smiles and frowns, eyes as windows to the soul)
actions (hugging, kissing, dancing, lack of movement)
sounds, smells, and textures to make something come alive
beauty, humor, nostalgia, etc.
WATCH OUT for overblown emotion, , false sense of emotion, using emotion negatively, etc.
LOGOS, ETHOS, AND PATHOS