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Transcript of Final
All behavior has a reason behind it
Lifestyle - includes the connecting themes and rules of interaction that give meaning to our actions
"The only normal people are the one's you don't know very well." ~ Alfred Adler
Birth Order & Sibling Relationships
Birth order - not a deterministic concept but does increase an individual's probability of having a certain set of experiences
Perception or Reality
View of Human Nature
Looks at past, but only in relation to the present
Views motivation as mainly social & goal oriented
Places more responsibility on the individual
Fictional finalism - an imagined life goal that guides a person's behavior "guiding self-ideal" or "goal of perfection"
Social interest - involves being as concerned about others as one is about oneself
Relationship based on mutual respect
Holistic psychological investigation
Determine mistaken goals & faulty assumptions
Reeducation or reorientation of the client
"Meanings are not determined by situations, but we determine ourselves by the meanings we give to situations." ~Alfred Adler
Family of six boys & two girls
Younger brother died young in the bed next to Alfred
Jealous of Sigmund
Major contributor to development of the psychodynamic approach
Becomes our motivation
Around 6 we form goals from our version of perfection
Because the Adlerian is not solely focused on the past or hereditary factors it places the emphasis on reeducating individuals to make different decisions & view reality differently.
Phenomenological - a clients subjective frame of reference
Unity & Patterns of Human Personality
Individual Psychology - Adler's theoretical approach
Holistic Concept - we cannot be understood in parts; rather, all aspects of ourselves must be understood in relationship
Goal of perfection
Vision of success or wholeness
Striving towards goals
View of themselves
Social Interest & Community Feeling
Tends to be most spoiled
Develops good ability of being "helpless" to gain others service
May outshine others in family
Therapist's Function & Role
Client's Experience in Therapy
Relationship Between Therapist & Client
Application: Therapeutic Techniques & Procedures
Phase 1: Establish the Relationships
Phase 2: Explore the Individual's Psychological Dynamics
Phase 3: Encourage Self-Understanding & Insight
Phase 4: Reorientation & Reeducation
"Gemeinschaftsgefühl" - Sense of Community
"...To see with the eyes of another, to hear with the ears of another, to feel with the heart of another"
Community feeling- embodies the feeling of being connected to all of humanity - past, present, & future - & to being involved in making the world a better place.
Building friendships - social task
Establishing intimacy - love/marriage task
Contributing to society - occupational task
The way that an individual views their place in the family is more important than their actual birth order
Receives lots of attention when only child
Dependable & hard working
Strives to keep ahead
Feels ousted with new child
Attempts to reassert her position - becoming a model child, bossing younger children, exhibiting a high achievement drive
Used to sharing attention
Behaves as though in a race
Attempts to surpass older sibling
Develops knack for finding out elder child's weak spots to gain praise from important role models
Feels squeezed out
May become problem child due to "poor me" attitude
High achievement drive
Learn to deal with adults well
Dependent on parents
Needs to be center of attention
Clients not "sick"
Fostering social interest
Helping clients overcome feelings of discouragement & inferiority
Modifying clients' views & goals
Changing faulty motivation
Encouraging the individual to recognize equality among people
Helping people to become contributing members of society
Look for mistakes in thinking & valuing
Assess client's functioning
Questionnaire - family constellation
Focus on goals & desired outcomes
Private logic - concepts about self, others, & life that constitute the philosophy on which an individual's lifestyle is based
Realize what resources are available
Viewed as equals based on the following:
Alignment of goals
Establish the proper therapeutic relationship
Explore the psychological dynamics operating in the client
Encourage the development of self-understanding
Help the client make new choices
Making clients aware of strengths
Exhibiting faith, hope, & caring
Subjective interview - counselor helps the client to tell his or her life story as completely as possible
Objective interview - seeks to discover information about:
How problems began
Any precipitating events
Medical history & medications
Reasons the client chose therapy
person's coping with life tasks
Empathic listening & responding
Exhibit fascination & interest
Listen for clues
Bring out client's tendencies in living
Family Constellation - family origin considered to have central impact on an individual's personality
Client's perception on family atmosphere
Early Recollections - projective technique that show which memories are special or important to a client
Assess client's convictions about self, others, life, & ethics
Assess client's stance in relation to the counseling session & the counseling relationship
Verify the client's coping patterns
Assess individual strengths, assets, & interfering ideas
Insight - an understanding of the motivations that operate in a client's life. A special form of awareness that facilitates a meaningful understanding within the therapeutic relationship & acts as a foundation for change.
Interpretation - deals with clients' underlying motives for behaving the way they do in the here and now.
"I could be wrong, but I am wondering if..."
"Could it be that..."
"Is it possible that..."
Reorientation - shifting rules of interaction, process, & motivation
Changes in awareness
Action outside of sessions
Showing faith in people
Expecting them to assume responsibility for their lives
Valuing them for who they are
Acknowledging the difficulties of life
Faith in client's ability to change
Clients make decisions & modify goals
Act as if they were the people they want to be
Catch themselves in the process of repeating old patterns
Have courage to apply new knowledge to life outside of therapy
Adlerian counselors want to make a lasting impact on their client's daily living
Addresses social equality issues & social embeddedness
Understands the value of understanding individuals in terms of their core goals & purposes
Gives more responsibility to the client
Congruent with all different value systems
Offers flexibility in applying a range of cognitive & action-oriented techniques
Understands the value of fitting their techniques to the individual client
Some cultures may not respond well to the idea of focusing on the self as the locus of change & responsibility
Some clients may not see the benefit to the past or their current lifestyle
Some view Adler's approach as too simplistic
“A girl who had been very pretty, spoiled by her mother
and ill-used by a drunkard father became an actress and had many love affairs which culminated in her becoming the mistress of an elderly man. Such an obvious exploitation of an advantage indicates deep feelings of insecurity and cowardice. This relationship, however, brought her trouble; her mother reproached her, and although the man loved her, he could not get a divorce. During this time her younger sister became engaged. In the face of this competition, she began to suffer from headaches and palpitations and became very irritable towards the man. (Ansbacher & Ansbacher, 1956, p. 310)”
INSIGHT AND INTERPRETATION
The girl’s condition was the result of a neurotic method of striving to hasten her marriage, and was not at all ineffective. The married man was greatly worried by her continuous headaches, coming to see me about my patient, and said that he would hurry the divorce and marry her. Treatment of the immediate illness was easy—in fact, it would have cleared up without me, for the girl was powerful enough to succeed with the help of her headaches. I explained to her the connection between her headaches and the competitive attitude toward her sister: it was the goal of her childhood not to be surpassed by her younger sister. She felt incapable of attaining her goal of superiority by normal means, for she was one of those children whose interest has become absorbed in themselves, and who tremble for fear that they will not succeed. She admitted that she cared only for herself and did not like the man she was about to marry. (Ansbacher & Ansbacher, 1956, pp. 310–311)
Derived from early recollections, basic mistakes refer to
the self-defeating aspects of an individual’s lifestyle. They often reflect avoidance or withdrawal from others, self-interest, or desire for power.
Although basic mistakes vary for each individual, Mosak and Maniacci (2008, p. 82)
provide a useful categorization of mistakes:
This includes words such as “all,” “never,” “everyone,” and “anything.”
“Everyone should like me”
“I never can do anything right”
“Everyone is out to hurt me”
False or impossible goals of security.
The individual sees the society as working against him or her and is likely to experience anxiety.
“People want to take advantage of me”
“I’ll never succeed.”
Misperceptions of life and life’s demands.
“Life is too hard”
“I never get a break.”
Minimization or denial of one’s worth.
These include expressions of worthlessness
“I am stupid”
“No one can ever like me.”
This has to do primarily with behavior.
“You have to cheat to get your way”
“Take advantage of others before they take advantage of you.”
Areas of Application
Adler advocated training both parents and teachers in effective practices that foster the child's social interests and result in a sense of competence and self-worth. Teachers are provided with ways to prevent and correct basic mistakes of children to promote social interest and mental health.
Parent education seeks to improve parent-child relationship by promoting greater understanading and acceptance. Parents are taught how to recognize the mistaken goals of children and use logical and natural consequences to guide children toward more productive behavior.
Adlerian therapy with couples is designed to assess a couple's beliefs and behaviors while educating them in more effective ways of meeting their relational goals.
Brief Couples Therapy:
foster social interest, assist couples in decreasing feelings of inferiority and overcoming discouragement, help couples modify their views and goals, help couples to feel a sense of quality in their relationships and provide skill-building opportunities. Couples are taught communication and cooperation techniques.
The therapeutic process seeks to increase awareness of the interaction of the individuals within the family system. Adlerians strive to understand the goals, beliefs, and behaviors of each family member and the family as an entity in its own right.
the climate characterizing the relationship between the parents and their attitudes toward life, gender roles, decision making, competition, cooperation, dealing with conflict, responsibility and so forth.