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Data Visualization to Aid Humanitarian Intervention Strategies

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Giang Nguyen

on 16 July 2016

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Transcript of Data Visualization to Aid Humanitarian Intervention Strategies

Giang Nguyen
giang-nguyen@uiowa.edu



Data Visualization to Aid Humanitarian Intervention Strategies

International Strategy and Reconciliation Foundation
North Korea - the Hermit Kingdom
"North Korea Says It Is Using Plutonium to Make A-Bombs"


The New York Times, 2003
"...the North Korean regime is committing crimes against humanity"

The International Coalition to Stop Crimes against Humanity in North Korea, 2014
"North Korea is a totalitarian dictatorship and one of the most restrictive countries in the world."
Freedom House, 2006
The DPRK 2008 Population Census
The DPRK Final Report of the National Nutrition Survey 2012
CBS, in collaboration with UN agencies
CBS, in collaboration with UNICEF, WFP, WHO
Research Questions
1. Can we identify meaningful data for visualization?

2. How can we link data from multiple sources, including surveys, census and administrative records, that are useful to data visualization?

3. How can we create data visualizations of linked data that are useful and relevant to humanitarian and development policy interventions in developing countries?
Methodology
1. Data transcription
Machine-readable data not available
Manually entered data into Excel, with rigorous quality control
To be released to the public

2. Inputted transcribed data into the statistical software R to create visualizations
Used packages “igraph” and “ggplot” in R
Used GeoJSON of DPRK provided by Highmaps Collection

3. Used best practices of data visualizations
Data Visualization to Aid Humanitarian Intervention Strategies

International Strategy and Reconciliation Foundation
Giang Nguyen

80% of DPRK area is mountains and uplands (CBS, June 2012)
Nationwide
77
per 100,000

5.3%


31.2%


27.9%


4%

4.1%
68
per 100,000

3.8%


28.9%


19.6%


2.3%

2.1%
Pyongyang
86
per 100,000

6.6%


36%


39.6%


6.1%

6.6%
Ryanggang
MMR (in 2008)

Low MUAC
in women 18-49

Anaemia
in women 15-49

Global chronic malnutrition
(stunting) in children 0-59

Global acute malnutrition
(wasting) in children 0-59

Low MUAC (<125 mm)
in children 6-59
80% of DPRK area is mountains and uplands (CBS, June 2012)
"...some areas have experienced 70 days without rain as well as the lowest rainfall levels since 1961"
"Food shortages in the 1990s led to an estimated million deaths."

developmentSEED, July 2014
Natural disasters
Disrupted agricultural activities and food resources
Malnutrition
"Engage DPRK" Mapping Initiative
MMR =
(number of maternal deaths/ number of live births)*100,000
(number of maternal deaths at hospital/ number of maternal deaths)*100
Thank you!
Health Indicators
of DPRK in 2012
Visualizing Drought in DPRK, June 2014
Data Visualization 1 (2008 DPRK Census)
Data Visualization 2 (2008 DPRK Census)
Data Visualization 3: Migrant Population 2003-2008 (2008 DPRK Census)
Acknowledgment
Visualizing Floods in DPRK, 1996 - 2012
List of co-authors of the paper and their affiliations:
Giang Nguyen (University of Iowa)

Star Ying (US Census Bureau)

Esther Lim (New York University)

Elliott Chun (Broward College)

Hannah Cho

Christian Tae

Cindy Won

Elena Zafarana (Switzerland Agency of Statistics)

Asaph Young Chun (ASA Statistics Without Borders and US Census Bureau)
*Note: All authors are affiliated with the International Strategy and Reconciliation Foundation
Conclusions
Data Visualization 4:
Net Migration 2003 - 2008 (2008 Population Census) vs.
Global Chronic Malnutrition (Stunting) (2012 NNS)
Data Visualization 5: Scaling Malnutrition to the DPRK (2012 National Nutrition Survey)
Chronic Malnutrition (Stunting)
Defined from the height of age (H/A) index, expressed in z-score (HAZ)

HAZ represents the number of standard deviations units from the median of the WHO 2006 reference population.

Global stunting is defined as HAZ < -2 SD.

Moderate stunting is defined as HAZ < -2 SD and >= -3 SD.

Severe stunting is defined as HAZ < -3 SD.
Stunting is irreversible after 24 months of age.

Acute Malnutrition (Wasting)
Estimated from the weight for height (W/H) index, expressed in z-score (WHZ)

WHZ represents the number of standard deviations units from the median of the WHO 2006 reference population.

Global wasting is defined as WHZ < -2 SD.

Moderate wasting is defined as WHZ < -2 SD and >= -3 SD.

Severe wasting is defined as WHZ < -3 SD.

Data from table 6.3, NNS 2012
Natural conditions matter:
- Northern provinces are made up of mountains, have worse health conditions, low mobility.
- Natural disasters such as flooding and drought may affect malnutrition.

The elite capital?
- Citizens of Pyongyang have the best health conditions.
- Heavy migration flow to Pyongyang.

Prevalence of malnutrition
- Stunting and wasting are prevalent.
- Long-term consequences
=> Treatment and prevention nation-wide
- Simultaneously cope with global and moderate wasting
Research of a comparative nature


Compare the DPRK and another country in transition with comparable economic conditions

Create DVs for data on TB, Hepatitis, and malaria that may benefit UN agencies, NGOs, and governments neighboring DPRK.
Suggestions for Future Research
North Korea, 27.9%, label "medium", in 2012
Percentage of children aged < 5 years stunted, latest available year, WHO
Malnutrition in North Korea - Comparatively
In 2007-2011:
Stunting prevalence was 32% (moderate and severe), taking up <1% share of the world.
Ranking based on the number of stunted children: 40 out of 81 surveyed countries (UNICEF)
Wasting prevalence was 5% (moderate and severe)
(data from UNICEF)

In 2012:
....
....
Full transcript