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The String Theory

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Priyanka Karthik

on 20 February 2014

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Transcript of The String Theory

The String Theory
Who helped the String Theory happen?
The String Theory
Priyanka Karthik
Zoe Weiman

Significant Scientists
Field Impact
Scientific Developments
The creation of the String theory
The definition, purpose, and dimensions
What is the String theory?
The string theory offers an explanation for the structure of the universe.
String theory was first theorized in 1984 during the superstring revolution.
Looking at the constituents of subatomic particles, there are small string-like filaments that are vibrating in different frequencies.
String theory fixes the mathematical inconsistencies between theory of general relativity and quantum mechanics.
Newton's 3 Laws of Motion
contradicts with

Maxwell's Law of Electromagnetism.
Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity
What is known:

1. Length
2. Depth
3. Width
Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity
contradicts with
Newton's Universal Theory of Gravity.
Einstein's General Theory of Relativity
Einstein's General Theory of Relativity
contradicts with
Quantum Mechanics.
The String Theory
String Theory
contradicts with
The Superstring Theory
The Superstring theory states that there are 11 dimensions that exist.
Dimensions that include time travel to the past and the future, parallel universes, and space. The others may be curled up dimensions, that are deeply tucked into the fabric of time, suggesting that they are so small that they have remained invisible to the naked eye or even any equipment.
Who, when, how, why
Goal: Create one unified law that brings all aspects of physics together
1968 - 1974
Gabriele Veneziano proposes the dual resonance model.
Euler Beta Function can be used to calculate the particle displacement in the equation of the string theory.
String theories are shown to require extra dimensions.
1974 - 1984
The exploration in the study of Quantum Chromodynamics increased.
The Bosonic String Theory was introduced.
The invention of supersymmetry.
1984 - 1989
The First SuperString Revolution
Capability to describe the elementary particles themselves and the interactions between them
Discovery of the heterotic string
1994 - 2000
The Second SuperString Revolution
The different superstring theories were unified to create the M-Theory
Construction of accurate cosmological models
Implications as to what cold dark matter is/contains
What tools expedited the exploration towards the string theory?
Large Hadron Collider -
Particle Accelerator which is the highest and most powerful, measures other dimensions by calculating the mass, before and after a collision. It looks to progress the understanding of the fundamental laws of physics. With this tool, scientists hope to discover
new subatomic particles
- which may uncover other curled up dimensions.

Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider -
Particle Accelerator that accelerates heavier ions. Physicists clash two nuclei which allow for temperatures hotter than the sun to emanate. Then the protons and neutrons that make up the nuclei, break into a plasma of quarks and gluons. The plasma should act as a gas; however it acts like a liquid, so it creates another dimension- a
black hole.
Reductionist vs. Non-Reductionist
Reductionists believe that if you know everything about the smallest particles, including how they behave, then you know everything about everything.
Non-Reductionists think that everything from "daydreams to the big bang" can be explained using string theory and properties of particles. Non reductionists believe that not "wonders of life" can be explained by physics, like feelings or biological processes.
The Definition
Now What?
The Dual Resonance Model
Introduction to the SuperString Theory
What is the impact of string theory on modern science?
Uniting general relativity and quantum mechanics -
Before string theory, most scientists worked with the very small, using quantum mechanics, OR the very large, using general relativity. They were able to ignore the mathematical inconsistencies between the two fundamental theories. Now, however, these are theoretically united for the first time by string theory.
Possibilities with string theory -
Parallel universes, wormholes, the universe as a hologram, time travel, an explanation for the big bang, and the end of the universe are all things that we can potentially explore and learn more about thanks to string theory.
E= mc
1. Leonard Susskind-
Born on January 1, 1940
Went to Cornell
Professor at Stanford for Theoretical Physics
Father of String Theory
Introduced the String Theory in 2003
2. Gabriele Veneziano-
Born in September 7, 1942
Italian physicist
Came up with the dual resonance model.
3. Albert Einstein-
Born in March 14, 1879
Largest Contributor to the String Theory
Dynamic Universe
His theories
Among scientists and physicists, string theory is common knowledge.
Parallel universes are depicted across pop culture, most notably in the British television show, Doctor Who, and the American television show, The Big Bang Theory.
String Theory in the Media
Full transcript