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Nervous System Diseases/Disorders

By: Celia Jackson, Benjamin Tang, John Vollmer, and Edie Royal
by

Celia Jackson

on 19 October 2012

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Transcript of Nervous System Diseases/Disorders

Concussions A concussion is a minor traumatic brain injury, most commonly occurring by impact to the head. The Brain bounces back and forth in the skull. The harder the impact, the more times the brain hits the skull, and trauma that is dealt to the brain. This can even cause swelling of the brain. Tourettes Symptoms of a concussion Tourettes is a disease of the nervous system that is characterized by involuntary, repetitive tics. Headache
Confusion
Drowsiness
Amnesia
Nausea and vomiting
Loss of consciousness
The feeling of losing time
Seeing flashing lights Bibliography! Autism Epilepsy Concussion "Epilepsy (Seizure Disorder)." MedicineNet. N.p., 3 Oct. 2011. Web. 23 Aug.2012.
<http://www.medicinenet.com/seizure/article.htm>.

"Epilepsy Foundation of Kentuckiana." What Is Epilepsy? N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Aug. 2012. <http://old.epilepsyfoundation.org/local/kentuckiana/whatis.cfm>. Tourettes Pervasive developmental disorder Board, A.D.A.M. Editorial. "Causes, Incidence, and Risk Factors." Concussion. U.S. National Library of Medicine,18 Nov. 0000. Web. 23 Aug. 2012. "Tourette Syndrome Fact Sheet." : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). N.p., 19 June 2012. Web. 27 Aug. 2012. <http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/tourette/detail_tourette.htm>. What is Autism? Epilepsy Tourettes is generally discovered between the ages of 3 and 9. The severity of the disorder starts to decline into adulthood. Appears in first 3 years of life Epilepsy is a brain disorder where neurons (clusters of nerve cells) signal abnormally

These neurons, responsible for your emotions and movements, become disturbed causing strange emotions, movements, and loss of consciousness

On December 16, 1997, 700+ photosensitive epileptics had to be hospitalized after watching a Pokemon episode Affects brain's development of social/communication skills Males are three to four times more likely to have it than females

Around 200,000 Americans have the most severe form of Tourettes No exact cause has been found What Causes Autism? Genetic factors are certainly related Symptoms Abnormalities in nervous system/chromosomes are more common in families with Autism Simple Tics Complex tics Suspected (but unproven) causes are:
Diet
Changes in digestive tract
Mercury poisoning
Body's inability to absorb vitamins/minerals Motor tics are sudden and brief

Use limited muscle groups

Examples: Eye movements, facial twitches, and head jerks 1 in 100 people have this disorder
Severe seizures will sometimes cause brain damage
There is no cure for epilepsy, but children will often outgrow it within 20 years Coordinated patterns of movements that involve several muscle groups

Some complex tics may seem purposeful More encompassing term would be Autism Spectrum Disorder Autism and ASD Cause The cause of Tourettes isn't known

Some think abnormalities in certain brain regions aid in the cause of TS (basal ganglia, frontal lobe, cortex) Autism relatively new/unknown, and symptoms vary Includes "classic" Autism, Asperger Syndrome, and atypical Autism Cerebral Palsy Parts of Brain Affected Bipolar Disorder Cerebral Palsy Classified by severe mood swings
These mood swings my occur only a few times each year or multiple times a day
Mania v. Depression
Neurotransmitters - an imbalance in naturally occuring brain chemicals may cause this disorder
Bipolar I - severe
Bipolar II - less severe than Bipolar I
Cyclothymic - very mild "Cerebral." Cerebral Palsy. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Aug. 2012. <http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/brain/cerebral_palsy.html>. Strokes Causes of strokes Strokes are caused by an interruption of blood flow to the brain, causing the surrounding brain cells to die. What it is Affects muscle tone, movement, and motor skills

Can lead to other problems with eyesight, hearing, learning disabilities, and speech problems

One of the most common congenital diseases, about 500,000 adults and children in America have it Bipolar disorder is not
considered genetic, but it is more common in relatives Types of CP Was thought that autism only affected part(s) of the brain Recent studies show that it affects all parts of the brain Autism "Causes, Incidence, and Risk Factors." Autism. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 16 May 2012. Web. 26 Aug. 2012. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002494/>. spoken and non-spoken communication
social skills (lack of empathy, showing emotion)
repetitive behavior (repeating words or actions, obsessive routines) Boys more likely to have Autism Multiple Sclerosis What is MS? Autoimmune disease, affects spinal
chord/brain Causes damage to myelin sheath, nerve signals slow down or stop altogether Damage to nerves caused by inflammation, inflammation occurs when immune system attacks nervous system What Causes MS? Cause of MS is still unclear Is thought to be a virus or a gene defect
(or both) Factors in environment may also
contribute Women are more likely to have MS Multiple Sclerosis http://www.cast.org/teachingeverystudent/sitewide/glossary.cfm?g_id=51 http://www.umm.edu/graphics/images/en/17089.jpg Symptoms Symptoms depend on severity/location of attack Episodes of attack may last days, weeks, or months Stress, hotbaths, fevers, etc. may trigger or worsen attacks Symptoms vary from painful muscle spasms, loss of balance/vision/hearing, numbness, etc. Treatment Currently no cure Therapies are available to slow MS Therapy meant to control symptoms and maintain a normal life Parkinson's Disease "Causes, Incidence, and Risk Factors." Multiple Sclerosis. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 26 Sept. 2011. Web. 26 Aug. 2012. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001747/>. Nervous System Diseases/Disorders By: John, Edie, Celia, and Ben Spastic Cerebral Palsy

Athetoid Cerebral Palsy

Ataxic Cerebral Palsy No type of CP gets worse over time Cause The exact cause of CP isn't exactly
known
Usually brain damage or poor development has something to do with it
Premature babies or underweight babies
are more likely to develop CP Hormones and environment are also shown to cause this disorder = "Cure Anxiety And Depression." Bipolar Disorder. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Aug. 2012. <http://cureanxiety.com/tag/bipolar-disorder>. Bipolar Disorder A blockage in the blood flow to the brain could be caused by any of the following: Sudden decrease in blood flow
Damage to a blood vessel supplying blood to the brain by an injury
Many different types of blood clots
Vasculitis
Conditions that predispose you to blood clots:
Cancer
Pregnancy
Atrial fibrillation
Some autoimmune diseases Strokes "Stroke Education." Stroke Education. N.p., n.d. Web.
27 Aug. 2012. "Stroke." — UVA Health. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Aug. 2012. It is a progressive disorder that affects your movement At first, the person may only be unable to show facial expressions but later causes people to lose their motor skills There is no cure for Parkinson's Causes tremors, slurred speech, slowed movements, impaired posture Symptoms Staff, Mayo Clinic. "Definition." Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 11 May 2012. Web. 27 Aug. 2012. <http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/parkinsons-disease/DS00295/DSECTION=symptoms>.

"Care Plan Nursing." Care Plan Nursing. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Aug. 2012. <http://careplannursing.blogspot.com/2012/03/parkinsons-disease-nursing-care-plan.html>.

Board, A.D.A.M. Editorial. "Parkinson's Disease." Parkinson’s Disease. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 26 Sept. 2011. Web. 27 Aug. 2012. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001762/>. Parkinson's Disease Skeletal deformities
Mental retardation
Seizures
Hearing/Vision problems
Abnormal muscle tone
Abnormal movements Treatment What Is It? Cause There is currently no cure Goal is to manage the disease Alvarez, Norberto, MD. "Cerebral Palsy." EMedicineHealth. Healthwise, n.d. Web. 27 Aug. 2012. <http://www.emedicinehealth.com/cerebral_palsy/page3_em.htm>. Most common way is by dopamine (neurotransmitters) injections Anti-depressants and mood stabilizers help to regulate and prevent mood swings Cerebral Palsy. Digital image. Living With Cerebral Palsy. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Aug. 2012. <http://www.livingwithcerebralpalsy.com/cerebral-conditions.php>. People with severe Parkinson's may require surgery Picture: Statistics As many as one million Americans are living with Parkinson's disease
About 60,000 Americans are diagnosed each year
It is estimated that about 10 million people throughout the world are living with Parkinson's
Men are 75% more likely to have Parkinson's than women
Medication costs for an individual with Parkinson's for one year average at $2,500 and therapeutic surgeries can cost up to $100,000 per patient One of the most common nervous disorders in elderly people

When it occurs in younger people, it is usually due to it running in the family

Parkinson's is caused by the destruction of dopamine-producing nerve cells, the cause for them being destroyed is unknown http://www.tampabay.com/news/health/research/article970962.ece http://consults.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/04/14/ask-the-experts-about-autism/ Ex: interferon (protein) injections, prescribed drugs, physical therapy
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