Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Unit 3: Naming and Drawing Structures

No description
by

Valerie Henderson

on 1 December 2016

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Unit 3: Naming and Drawing Structures

Ion Puzzles
Covalent Compounds
Bohr-ing Notes
Objective: Students will be able to draw bohr diagrams to show the approximate locations of all electrons in an electrically neutral atom.
Dot, Dot...Lewis Dot
Objective:
1. SWBAT use their knowledge of Bohr diagrams to draw a Lewis dot diagram for the first 20 elements.
2. SWBAT identify and describe patterns in valence electrons for the 1st 20 elements.
3. Students will use their knowledge of Lewis dot diagrams to predict the charges of ions formed for the first 20 elements.

Ionic vs Covalent Compounds foldable
Unit 3: Bonding with Names
IN:
"Types of Compounds"
What do you know about compounds? Can you name any specific types?
Ionic
Covalent
Metallic
The types are classified by the bonds between the atoms participating.
Occurs between ions
Which types of atoms form ions?
metals and nonmetals
nonmetal-nonmetal
metal-metal
What types of atoms participate?
Title: Ion Puzzles
Unit 3
T.O.C. ?
With your partner at your table group...
Please open the bag containing ion puzzles...
Look at each ion (each shape represents an ion...)
If you were going to arrange them together like little puzzles, how might that look?
1. How did you and your partner decide to arrange your puzzle pieces to make little puzzles?
2. What made you decide to arrange them this way?
3
. Please complete the table below using your knowledge from unit 2.
# protons
# electrons
protons + (-electrons)
charge
ion symbol
Hydrogen Ion
Beryllium ion
Chloride
1
0
1 + (-0)
= 1+
1+
H
+
4
2
4 + (-2) =
2+
2+
Be
2+
17
18
17 + (-18) =
1-
1-
Cl
-
4. For each ion puzzle you made, please write the chemical formula.
Let's do the first one together...
Sodium
fluoride
Na
+
F
-
NaF
5. For each of the ionic compounds you've just made, please write the name.
Naming ionic compounds, write the cation's name first (as it appears on the periodic table) and the anion name goes second.
NaF
Sodium fluoride
KF
Potassium fluoride
HCl
This one has a special name...It's hydrochloric acid
KI
Potassium iodide
BeO
Beryllium oxide
MgS
Magnesium sulfide
CaS
Calcium sulfide
6. Is there a pattern in the names of the cations? If so, what is the pattern?
7. Is there a pattern in the names of the anions? If so, what is the pattern?
The names of the of the cations, they are the same as the names of their elements on the periodic table.
To distinguish a cation from a neutral atom, the word ion is added after the name when it is alone.
The names of the anions are the names of the atoms with the ending -ide.
8. Take apart the pieces of the ion puzzles so they are separated into the different ions.
Please arrange these by groups (using your BFF!).
Looking at the ions by group they belong to on the periodic table, do you see a pattern in the ions each group forms?
All ions from a group on the periodic table form ions with the same charge.
9. Please write this table on your folder paper.
group 1
group 2
group 16
group 17
Group #
charge of ion formed
1+
2+
2-
1-
metal + nonmetal
11. Based on ion puzzles, please write rules for naming ionic compounds.
Rules for creating ionic compound chemical formulas:
1. Write the ion symbols (with charges)
2. Balance the charges using subscripts. (if necessary)
ionic compounds are electrically neutral
12. Another way to determine subscripts for ionic compounds.
Making pluses equal minuses
H
+
Cl
-
+
-
HCl
Na
+
O
2-
+
-
-
Are there the same + as -?
+
Na O
2
For every 1 oxide, 2 Na ions are needed to balance the - with the +
Fe
3+
O
2-
+ + +
- -
For iron (III) ion, it's a 3+ so you can only add pluses how many at a time?
3 + at a time
+ + +
- -
- -
For every 2 Fe (III) ions
Unit 3: Bonding with Names
T.O.C.
Date:
Title:
Section:
Did you put me in ur T.O.C.?
Where are the electrons of an atom located?
Bohr-ing History
outside nucleus
in the electron cloud
Coulombic attraction is the attraction of negative charges to positive ones.
Therefore the negative electrons in an atom are attracted to the positive protons in the nucleus. In the early 1900's scientists were looking for an explanation to a curious problem with their model of the atom.
Why don't atoms collapse?
In addition, the negative electrons should collapse into the nucleus due to the attraction between ________ and ________. Scientists were at a loss to explain this until ____________ proposed his "_____________" model of the atom.
positive
negative
Niels Bohr
solar system
A ball on a string model:
A ball on the end of a string will never collide with your hand when you swing it in circles, even though you are constantly pulling on the string.
Why won't it hit you?
The ball has to move quickly enough for the pull from the string not to pull it into your hand.
If you let it go, it would fly away in a straight line.
Because of centripetal force, the ball is moving in a circular path.
Using this logic, why is it possible for electrons not to crash into the nucleus?
The electrons must be moving in orbits so fast that the pull from the nucleus is not enough to attract them toward the nucleus.
Energy Levels:
After Bohr proposed the solar system model (that electrons orbit a nucleus just like planets orbit the sun), he called the orbits ______________.
energy levels
Bohr model of an Atom:
Please draw:
In Diagram
Subatomic Particles
+
-
o
protons
electrons
neutrons
Higher energy levels are ________ away from the nucleus. For an electron to go in to a higher energy level, it must _____ energy. Sometimes, the electrons can absorb ______ energy.
further
gain
light
Does an e need to absorb or gain energy to go from the 2 to the 1 energy level?
-
nd
st
No.
The first energy level is less energy than the second energy level. To go from a higher energy level to a lower energy level, it needs to release (give off) energy.
Energy sub-levels:
Energy level
names of sub-levels that exist in that level
1
2
3
4
s
s and p
s, p and d
s, p, d and f
Note:
no such thing as a "d sublevel" inside the 2 energy level because there are only s and p sub-levels inside the 2 energy level.
nd
nd
Since a d ________ has 5 orbitals (and each orbital can contain up to ___ electrons) then a d sublevel can contain ___ electrons ( = 5 x 2). Pay attention to the difference between __________ and _______.
sublevel
10
2
sublevel
orbital
How many electrons can fit into each of the energy levels?
1 energy level
2 energy level
3 energy level
4 energy level
st
nd
rd
th
2
8
18
Sublevels of the periodic table:
32
Orbitals:
exist inside ________.
Different sublevels have different numbers of ______.
sublevels
orbitals
sub-level
# of orbitals possible
s
p
d
f
1
3
5
7
block
group
s
1 and 2
d
3-12
p
13-18
f
lanthanides
actinides
Name: Hydrogen
How many
protons
?
1
Neutrons?
0
+
Dot, Dot...Lewis Dot
The electrons in the highest energy level ( _____ most energy level) are called _________ electrons.
Valence electrons are always the highest energy level. These are the electrons that participate in forming _________ bonds.
outer
valence
chemical
Bohr Diagram for Hydrogen
look @ Bohr-ing Notes
How many electrons in the highest energy level?
1
How many valence electrons does Hydrogen have?
1
Draw the Lewis dot structure for Hydrogen
Lewis dot structures show only valence electrons
valence e = highest energy level electrons
-
Lewis dot diagrams show electrons as dots.
step 1: Write chemical symbol
H
step 2: Think of the symbol as a box, there are 4 sides. There can be a max of 2 e on each side.
-
*remember, e want to be as far away from each other as possible
-
H
Draw the Bohr diagram for Helium:
How many electrons are in the highest energy level?
2
How many valence electrons does Helium have?
2
Draw the Lewis dot structure for Helium
step 1: chemical symbol
step 2: valence electrons on sides
He
Could I draw the Lewis dot better?
He
Draw the Bohr diagram for Lithium:
Where have you drawn this before?
Bohr-ing notes "Bohr model of an atom"
please draw
How many electrons are in the highest energy level?
1
How many valence electrons does Lithium have?
1
Draw the Lewis dot structure for Lithium
step 1: chemical symbol
step 2: valence electrons on sides
Li
Bohr diagram for Beryllium
Lewis dot structure for Beryllium
Be
Independent Practice:
Do you notice a pattern in the valence electron numbers of these atoms?
YES NO
What can you say about the valence e #s of groups? periods?
period
valence e
number increases by 1
group
valence e
numbers are the same
-
-
Please complete the table below for valence electron number for each periodic table group of representative elements.
Group Number
Valence e
-
1
2
13
14
15
16
17
18
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
noble gases
alkali metals
alkaline earth metals
metals (groups 1 and 2)
nonmetals (groups 13-17)
(except metalloids)
An atom will gain or lose electrons to get to a full octet. A full octet is 8 valence electrons.
Which group has 8 valence electrons?
group 18: noble gases
This group does not form ions. That means they do not want to gain or lose electrons.
All of the other "commoners" (other elements) want to be like the noble gases. They want to have 8 valence electrons.
noble gases = unreactive
The stable valence electron number is 8.
(That's why noble gases are unreactive)
Which noble gas is the exception to the octet rule?
Helium
How many energy levels does it have?
1
1st energy level = full @ 2 e
-
duet rule
For metals (groups 1 and 2) would they gain or lose electrons to get to a full octet?
How many do they need to gain to get a full octet?
Na needs 7
Mg needs 6
What if Na lost 1 electron, how many electrons would it have on its highest energy level?
8
Metals lose electrons to form ions.
If an element loses electrons, will it be positive or negative?
What about groups 15, 16, 17?
How many valence electrons does each of the groups have?
Would P gain 3 or lose 5?
5 valence
gain 3 because it's less energy
What is the charge of the ion when it gains 3 e ?
-
3-
"Bohr vs Lewis"
show electrons on energy levels
Shows all 3 subatomic paticles
protons (+)
neutrons (0)
electrons (-)

only shows valence electrons (highest energy)
Bohr Diagram
Lewis dot Diagram
electrons are dots
electrons are drawn around 4 sides of the chemical symbol
example
C
example:
T.O.C.?
The Atomic Dating Game
Atomic Dating Game
All elements are jealous of the ______ gas' valence electron number. All the other representative elements want a full valence (_______ or _____). A full valence for Helium, Lithium, and Beryllium is __ electrons. A full valence for all other elements is __ electrons. This follows the _____ rule.
noble
octet
duet
2
8
octet
Part 1: Mr. Sodium
Please draw the bohr diagram in the space to the right.
the bold circle represents the nucleus. The first energy level is the first non-bold circle.
Who should Mr. Sodium date?
Ms. Fluorine
Why?
Sodium is a metal with 1 valence electron he wants to lose to become a cation. Fluorine is a nonmetal with 7 valence electrons she is looking to keep and gain one more to have a full valence.
Please complete the set-up for oxygen
What about Neon?
She's special. She's our strong, independent woman who doesn't need a man!
*transition metals form cations, however, they have multiple oxidation states (this means they form differently charged ions).
10. Which two types of elements form ionic compounds?
Exit Ticket
Self-Assess: How do you think you did today?
Our learning goal:
How ionic compounds formed, how to name them and write their chemical formulas.
Name the compound and write the chemical formula for the ionic compound of Sodium (Na ) and Sulfide (S )
2-
+
For your period, choose the folder (4, 3, 2, 1) to best go with your confidence on your completion of this exit ticket.
electrons want to be far away as possible
Formulas and Naming Practice
+
2+
3+
+
2+
3+
-
2-
3-
-
2-
3-
NaCl
CaCl
2
AlCl
3
Na
Cl
+
-
Ca
Cl
++
-
-
Na
O
+
- -
+
Na O
2
Ca
O
++
--
CaO
N
Na
---
+
+
+
Na N
3
1. What types of elements form covalent bonds?
(warm-up 3.1)
nonmetal + nonmetal
2. Do cations and anions come together to form covalent bonds?
No
3. What types of compounds do they form?
ionic
5.
6.
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
5
2
5
2
nonmetal + nonmetal
chlorine fluroide doesn't tell you how many fluroine are present.
1
2
5
7
8
-ide
There is only 1 of it and it's the first one.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
oxide
10.
9.
12.
nitrogen monoxide
dinitrogen tetroxide
tetraphosphorous decoxide
drop the a when it's with the o.
(vowels can't be next to each other in english)
dichlorine monoxide
14.
chlorine monofluoride
when the beginning of the element name is with a vowel, drop the o at the end of mono
15
tetraphosphorous decoxide
tribromine octoxide
If the element name starts with a vowel and the prefix ends with an a or o, drop the prefix ending.
16.
binary = how many elements?
2
molecular? (what type of elements?)
nonmetal + nonmetal
When you have two nonmetals forming a compound.
17.
covalent bonding
Hold your paper landscape.
Fold it in half, hamburger
Fold the sides in to the middle to create 2 windows.
Ionic
Covalent
(molecular)
Types of Elements
the inside
Ionic Compounds
Covalent Compounds
metal + nonmetal
nonmetal + nonmetal
cation + anion
left side + right side
right side + right side
+
-
electrons are...
transferred
(stolen)
shared
Structure
crystal
lattice
geometrical
shapes
linear
bent
trigonal planar
tetrahedral
Why?
Coulombic attraction...what happens when negative meets negative?
repulsion!
electrons want to be as far away from each other as they can!
How to name?
write cation name (from periodic table)
write anion name (ending -ide)
write the prefixes
when the 1st element is 1, don't use mono!
BeF
2
beryllium fluoride
Fe O
2
3
Iron (III) oxide
transition metals use roman numerals in name
CO
2
carbon dioxide
CO
carbon monoxide
Drawing
Al
Cl
+++
-
-
-
NH
4
Cl
+
-
NH Cl
4
NH
4
O
+
--
+
How do you group in math?
parentheses
(NH )O
4
2
higher melting and boiling points (more energy to break bonds)
Unit 3 standards:
SC.CH.4.6: Explain that atoms combine to form molecules by sharing the outermost electrons to form covalent, or metallic bonds or by transferring electrons to form ionic bonds.
SC.CH.4.7: Describe why the chemical bonds between atoms in molecules such as H CH NH N Cl and many large biological molecules are covalent.
SC.CH.4.9: Describe how electronegativity and ionization energy relate to bond formation.
SC.CH.5.4 Write balanced equations to describe chemical equations.

2
4
3
2
2
ionic
covalent
ionic
Warm-up 3.4 "The S'mores Equation"
Write an equation to show on the left the ingredients of a s'more and on the right, the product (one s'more).
+
+
=
Cr= cracker
C= chocolate
M = marshmallow

*Cr = 1 cracker (there are 2 crackers present) so should it be Cr or 2Cr?
2
Cr
+
C
+
M
=
1
2
Cr CM
2
Unit 3 Review
Warm-up 3.4
"Bond Types Sort"
With your table group, please sort the information by which type of bond it is referring to.
Ionic

Covalent
Metallic
metal-nonmetal
transfers electrons
conducts electricity in aqueous solution (or molten)
brittle
relatively high melting point and boiling point
extreme differences in electronegativity
nonmetal-nonmetal
shares electrons
metal-metal
sea of electrons
poor to nonconducting
(electricity)
brittle
relatively low melting point and boiling point
both have high electronegativity
conducts electricity in solid form
malleable
(and ductile!)
low to high melting and boiling point
both have low electronegativity
crystal lattice
molecules
compact orderly patterns (crystalline)
no prefixes in naming
uses prefixes in naming
N/A (naming)
generally soluble in water
high to low solubility in water
insoluble or reactive in water
solid @ room temp
solid, liquid, gas @ room temp
solid (one liquid) @ room temp
Where did I learn it?
-The Matrix
No, not that matrix!
Please look at the standards we've learned this unit and write the names of the items that we used to learn each standard in the right column.
Unit 3 Review Questions:
Please complete the review questions.

Today's exit ticket:
Dot, Dot...Lewis Dot
Atomic Dating Game
Ion Puzzles
Formulas and Naming Practice
Group Bonding!
HI Standard:
Topic: Nature of Matter
Benchmark SC.CH.4.6 Explain that atoms combine to form molecules by sharing the outermost electrons to form covalent, or metallic bonds or by transferring electrons to form ionic bonds
NGSS: HS-PS1-1. Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms.
Objective:
Students will be able to determine the type of bond atoms will form based on they type of atom.
Periodic Trends Review:
Ionization Energy
The energy to remove an electron from an atom
down a group
decreases
Electron shielding
The inner electrons shield the outermost electrons from the full attractive force of the nucleus. This causes the outermost electrons to be held less tightly to the nucleus.
across a period
increases because more protons are being added (increase nuclear charge) and electrons are being added but to the same energy level so they are held tighter to the nucleus.
Atomic Radius
down a group
increases
because of electron shielding, the effective nuclear charge on the outer electrons is constant moving down a group (outer electrons are not pulled closer)
across a period
decreases
because new electrons are being added to the same energy level, electron shielding does not play a role and as protons are added, they pull the electrons closer to the nucleus, decreasing the radius
The bond radius is the length that is half the distance between the nuclei of 2 bonded atoms.
Electronegativity
Atoms bond to one another to form a compound. These bonds can involve the sharing of valence electrons. Not all atoms in a compound share electrons equally.
Electronegativity is a measure of how much an atom wants a pair of electrons in a chemical bond.
going down a group
decreases
going across a period
increases
Atoms which are unstable on their own often form chemical bonds to become more stable.
We will learn about 3 types of chemical bonds:
ionic bonds
covalent bonds
metallic bonds
Ionic Bonding:
occurs between oppositely charged ions
Occur between atoms with large electronegativity differences
Occur between metals and nonmetals
Electrons are transferred from the metal cation to the nonmetal ion.
Ionic bonds have high boiling points and high melting points (ionic bonds = strong)
Metal cations and nonmetals anions are held tightly to each other in a crystal lattice
Covalent Bonding
Salts are made from ionic bonds (NaCl - sodium chloride)
Many of the rocks and minerals in Earth's crust are made by ionic bonds.
While the ions in an ionic bond are charged, they are combined in a ratio to cancel each other out so the ionic compound has no overall charge.
Ionic compounds do not consist of molecules.
When dissolved in solution, the cations and anions of the crystal lattice are broken apart so they are free to move. This allows ionic compounds to conduct electricity in solution. (electricity = moving charges)
Ionic compounds are hard and brittle. Hard meaning it resists breaking and brittle meaning that if enough force is applied to, it will break apart.
The crystal lattice structure has layers of cations and anions orderly placed so each cation is next to an anion.

occurs between nonmetal and nonmetal atoms
occurs when electronegativity difference is small
electrons are shared (equally or mostly equally)
non-polar covalent - electrons shared equally
polar covalent - electrons shared unequally (one atom has a higher electronegativity)
polar molecules have poles with slight negative and slight positive ends
This is because one atom has a higher electronegativity and pulls the pair of electrons in the chemical bond closer to it, leaving the less electronegative atom with a slightly positive end and the more electronegative atom with a slightly negative end.
Metallic Bonding
Occurs between metals and metals
Occurs between two atoms both with low electronegativities
Electrons in a metallic bond are held as a sea of electrons (delocalized)
metallic bonds can conduct electricity in solid form
For every oxide ion, it's a 2-
How many - can you add at a time for oxide?
2- at a time
The charges for the transition metals will appear on your BFF 2.0 (you will have this and BFF 1.0 on every test).
Writing Ionic Compound Formulas with polyatomic* ions:
1. Copy the polyatomic exactly as it is on BFF 2.0
(never change subscripts!)
2. Make pluses equal to minuses
3. If more than 1 polyatomic is needed, group with parentheses.

*anytime you see a polyatomic ion (ion is your indicator it's part of an ionic compound), treat it like a non-metal anion (exceptions = ammonium and hydronium)
sodium hydroxide
base meaning it's caustic and good at dissolving organic things (like hair and skin), main ingredient in drain cleaner and soap (commonly called lye)
sodium atom
valenece electrons:
1
group: 1
gain or lose?
1e
-
e in atom - e lost = e in ion
-
-
-
11 e- - 1 e- = 10 e- in ion
p+ + (-e-) = charge
11p+ + (-10e-) = 1+
ion symbol: Na
+
hydroxide
Not on periodic table...must be on BFF 2.0
Na
OH
+
-
+
-
NaOH
Aluminum sulfate
used in water purification, wastewater treatment and making paper
Aluminum atom:
group: 13
valence e-: 3
lose or gain?
3e-
e- in atom - e- lost = e- in ion
13e- - 3e- = 10e- in ion
p+ + (-e-) = charge
13 p+ + (-10e-) = 3+
Al
3+
-ate
-ite
= gobledeegook you don't know...BFF 2.0!
SO
4
2-
+++
--
--
+++
--
Aluminum sulfate
Al SO
2
4
( )
3
Any charged particle that is moving is giving off _____________ radiation, causing it to lose energy and it will quickly spiral into the nucleus, annihilating the whole atom.
electromagnetic
Nucleus
Electron
1 energy level
st
Why aren't there any neutrons in hydrogen?
The mass is 1 amu and we know it has to have 1 proton which has a mass of 1 amu.
Name: Helium
atomic number:
Reading the periodic table:
atomic number
number of protons in the nucleus
mass: 1 amu
average atomic mass
weighted average of all isotopes
round to nearest whole number
> .5 round up
<5. round down
Atomic mass = protons + neutrons
Each proton's mass = 1 amu
Each neutron's mass = 1 amu
p
+
n
0
+
=
atomic mass
Can you isolate the n to create an equation to determine number of neutrons when given protons and atomic mass?
0
2
Number of protons:
2
Average Atomic Mass: 4.00
Atomic Mass (rounded to nearest 1):
4
Neutrons:
atomic mass - p = n
+
0
2
Electrons:
2
In an electrically neutral atom,
number of protons = number of electrons.
Only 2 __________ can fit in
each orbital.
s sub-level: ___ electrons
p sub-level: ___ electrons
d sub-level: ___ electrons
f sub-level: ___ electrons
electrons
2 x 1 = 2
2 x 3 = 6
2 x 5 = 10
2 x 7 = 14
s sub-level = 2 electrons
s sub-level = 2 electrons
p sub-level = 6 electrons
s and p sub-levels = 8 electrons
d sub-level = 10 electrons
s, p and d sub-levels = 18 electrons
f sub-level = 14 electrons
Nucleus
1 energy level
st
Full transcript