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Cross- Cultural Exchanges Along the Silk Road
Transcript of Cross- Cultural Exchanges Along the Silk Road
Monique Presentation Group Conclusion Tang Dynasty Increasing popularity of Buddhism (which moves into China as a consequence also of the Silk Roads)
Cultural exchanges between Buddhist art, paintings creating new traditions to China culture
Tang Dynasty The 9th Century (820 - 917) – Decline, rebellion and persecution Tang Dynasty Tang Dynasty Side note:
Wu Zetian Interregnum (Second Zhou Dynasty 690 – 705)
Tang Dynasty "The three centuries of the [Tang] empire's formal existence were not at all alike: we must ... fashion a chronological skeleton on which to hang the flesh of our story"
- Edward H. Schafer, The Golden Peaches of Samarkand, p. 7 Tang Dynasty China’s assimilation of the Silk Road: Cultures and Civilisations
Different stages and contents of assimilations?
Methods by which they were made?
Impact and durations?
Religious/ideas Tang Dynasty ‘Tang Dynasty’
618 – 907 AD China's assimilation Along the Silk Road Huaisheng Mosque in Guangzhou, China 7th century AD: Muslims assimilated
towards China along Silk Roads or sea
Guangdong Province and Quanzhou
stronghold of most Islamic belief
Strong influence on Chinese spirituality
Tang Dynasty 2nd century BC - Buddhist beliefs transmitted along the Silk Road
Buddhist missionaries contributed to the spread of Buddhist beliefs between India and China Tang Dynasty Trade and Goods Analysis Political Analysis Political Analysis Political Analysis Political Analysis Ideas and Religions: Analysis Ideas and Religions: Analysis Ideas and Religions: Analysis Ideas and Religions: Analysis Introduction Tang Dynasty Buddhist Beliefs from India to China Buddhism gained firm hold on China Islam Chronology of the 'Tang Dynasty' 7th Century (618-705)- ‘Century of conquest & settlement’ The 8th Century (705-815) – Great heights and great lows Importance of Material Exchange Buddhist - Zoroastrianism - Manchaeism - Nestorian - Islam Diversity of Silk Road routes for commercial trade, exchange created an exotic China in Tang Dynasty
Dual routes along the Silk Road - Expansion of the trade routes during Tang Dynasty - CHang'an - Central Asia - Middle East - Europe
Central commodity - highly profitable and symbolic of prosperous East Asia
Effective political tool - animals - fashion - precious gems - music - sport
Precious goods, herbs, food & wines and various different traditional eating practices, contributed to these exchanges adding more diverse to daily life on the Silk Road Silk & luxury good Other commodities Tang Dynasty Trade and Goods Analysis Importance of Technological Exchange Technology Diverse forms of technology contributed to cultural exchanges on the Silk Road
Paper invented by Han Dynasty stimulated the invention of printing in the T'ang Dynasty - symbolism of China and too for culture and religious exchange on the Silk Road
Early in the T'ang era, the spread of Buddhism was assisted with the invention of woodbloack printing techniques Tang Dynasty Trade and Goods Analysis Buddha Valrocano (Dari) Tang Dynasty – early 8th century – China. Gilt leaded bronze Camel with packboards and baggage – 6th – 7th century – Central Asia Tang Dynasty Ideas and Religions: Analysis 5th C bce to the 13th C ce: spread of Zoroastrianism throughout Western regions of China
Earliest religion and rapid growth during Tang Dynasty
3rd to the 7th C ce: prohibited by Tang Dynasty thus greater influence on population
635 ce to 785 ce: Emergence of Christianity , Roman Church banned Nestorian sect resulting in movement towards the East – Nestorian church in Chang An Three Foreign Religions” Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism and Nestorian Eighty Seven Celestials, draft painting of a fresco by Wu Daozi (c. 685–758) The view of the citadel near Turfan,
built to protect the Silk Road Silk Road Rise and decline of the T'ang Dynasty result of the T'ang Empire's economic, political and social stability
Links between healthy economy, propsperous trade and foreign relations through use of Silk Road
Internal and external factors lead to the decline of the Dynasty - rebellions, persecutions, oppressive rule and unstable economy
Period of T'ang saw notable amount of global interconnectedness The 7th Century The 8th Century The 9th Century First Half (705 - 765) Second Half (765 - 820) Considered the "Fullness of Tang"
Began with the reassertion of Tang rule under Emperor Tsung
Great literary and artistic achievements
Period of great religious toleration and diversity Sui Dynasty had fallen into economic and military crisis
Last Sui Emperor assassinated by the powerful Li family in 618
The Li establish the Tang and institute a massive program of government renewal Cross - Cultural Exchanges Along the Silk Road This includes:
the conquest of numerous surrounding regions and peoples
the establishment of a stable new tax regime
the settlement of central and southern china and their economic development Zoroastrianism Manichaeism Nestorian A time of growing cultural interaction and appreciation by the Tang elites Military conflict across the borders
Uprisings in the north
Arrival of Islamic forces in Central Asia
Hardening of government and foreshadowing of decline Attempts to resuscitate drained war economy
New tax system stifles economic growth with rises in prices
General decline leads to rebellion, resentment of ruling dynasty and localisation of trade
Foreign faiths targeted for economic relief The Rebellion of Huang Ch'ao (881) What were the different stages and the different contents of these assimilations, the methods by which they were made, their impacts and durations?