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The skeletal system
Transcript of The skeletal system
Short bones include the carpal bones (hands, wrist) and tarsal bones (feet, ankles) -Flat bones: strong, flat plates of bone with the main function of providing protection to the bodies vital organs and being a base for muscular attachment. -Irregular bones:bones in the body which do not fall into any other category, due to their non-uniform shape. Good examples of these are the Vertebrae, Sacrum and Mandible (lower jaw). -Sesamoid Bones:are usually short or irregular bones, imbedded in a tendon. The most obvious example of this is the Patella (knee cap) which sits within the Patella or Quadriceps tendon. http://www.teachpe.com/anatomy/types_of_bones.php Ligaments Tendons Bone Breaks Bone Diseases http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002249.htm http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002298.htm -The strongest bone in your body is the femur (thighbone), and it's hollow! -If an identical twin grows up without having a certain tooth, the other twin will most likely also grow up with that tooth missing. -There are 54 bones in your hands including the wrists. -Fingernails grow nearly 4 times faster than toenails! -Your thigh bone is stronger than concrete. http://www.muskurahat.us/amazing-facts/bones-facts.asp -Bone diseases are conditions that result in the impairment of normal bone function and can make bones weak.
Weak bones should not just be excused as a natural part of aging.
Strong bones begin in childhood.
People of all ages can improve their bone health. -The most common bone disease is osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of bone structure. -Paget’s disease causes skeletal deformities and fractures. It affects older men and women. -Osteogenesis imperfecta is an inherited disorder that causes brittle bones and frequent bone fractures in children. http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/bonehealth/factsheet1.pdf -Fibrous joints connect bones without allowing any movement. The bones of your skull and pelvis are held together by fibrous joints. The union of the spinous processes and vertebrae are fibrous joints. -Cartilaginous joints are joints in which the bones are attached by cartilage. These joints allow for only a little movement, such as in the spine -Synovial joints allow for much more movement than cartilaginous joints. Cavities between bones in synovial joints are filled with synovial fluid. This fluid helps lubricate and protect the bones. Bursa sacks contain the synovial fluid. -hinge joints allow extension and retraction of an appendage. -saddle joints allows movement back and forth and up and down, but does not allow for rotation like a ball and socket joint. -ball and socket joints allows for radial movement in almost any direction. They are found in the hips and shoulders. -Ellipsoid joints are similar to a ball and socket joint. They allow the same type of movement to a lesser magnitude. -Pivot joints allow rotation around an axis. The neck and forearms have pivot joints. In the neck the occipital bone spins over the top of the axis. In the forearms the radius and ulna twist around each other. -gliding or plane joint bones slide past each other. Midcarpal and midtarsal joints are gliding joints http://www.shockfamily.net/skeleton/JOINTS.HTML -Ligaments are tough fibrous band of connective tissue that serves to support the internal organs and hold bones together in proper articulation at the joints. -A ligament is composed of dense fibrous bundles of collagenous fibres and spindle-shaped cells known as fibrocytes, with little ground substance (a gel-like component of the various connective tissues). -There are two major types: white ligament is rich in collagenous fibres, which are sturdy and inelastic; and yellow ligament is rich in elastic fibres, which are quite tough even though they allow elastic movement. -At joints, ligaments form a capsular sac that encloses the articulating bone ends and a lubricating membrane, the synovial membrane. Sometimes the structure includes a recess, or pouch, lined by synovial tissue; this is called a bursa. -Other ligaments fasten around or across bone ends in bands, permitting varying degrees of movement, or act as tie pieces between bones (such as the ribs or the bones of the forearm), restricting inappropriate movement. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/340385/ligament -Tendons are the connective tissues that transmit the mechanical force of muscle contraction to the bones. -The tendon is firmly connected to muscle fibres at one end and to components of the bone at its other end. -A tendon is composed of dense fibrous connective tissue made up primarily of spindle-shaped cells called fibrocytes and of collagenous fibres. -The tendon is attached to the bone by collagenous fibres (Sharpey fibres) that continue into the matrix of the bone. The composition of a tendon is similar to that of ligaments and aponeuroses. -The great tensile strength of tendons is made possible by the large quantity of collagenous fibres, which are remarkably tough and strong. It is neccesary to withstand the stresses of muscle contraction. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/587171/tendon -If more pressure is put on a bone than it can stand, it will split or break. A break of any size is called a fracture. If the broken bone punctures the skin, it is called an open fracture (compound fracture). -Symptoms
•A visibly out-of-place or misshapen limb or joint
•Swelling, bruising, or bleeding
•Numbness and tingling
•Broken skin with bone protruding
•Limited mobility or inability to move a limb Comminuted fracture
Definition: A comminuted fracture is a fracture in which the bone involved in the fracture is broken into several pieces. At least three separate pieces of bone must be present for a fracture to be classified as comminuted Spiral fracture
Definition: A spiral fracture is a type of bone fracture which is caused by a twisting force. You may also hear spiral fractures referred to as torsion fractures, in a reference to the forces involved to create a spiral fracture Greenstick fracture
Definition: A greenstick fracture is a type of mild bone fracture which is most commonly seen in children. In a greenstick fracture, extreme force causes a bone to bend, breaking partway through, much like a green twig when it is bent transverse fracture
Definition: A fracture in which the line of break forms a right angle with the axis of the bone. Oblique fracture
Definition: A slanted fracture of the shaft along the bone's long axis Segmental fracture
Definition: A bone break in which several large bone fragments separate from the main body of a fractured bone. The ends of the fragments may pierce the skin, as in an open fracture, or may be contained within the skin, as in a closed fracture. Avulsed fracture
Definition: A separation of a small fragment of bone cortex at the site of attachment of a ligament or tendon. Impacted fracture
Definition: A fracture in which one fragment of bone is firmly driven into the other. Torus or Compression fracture
Definition: A fracture in which the bone collapses. Enjoy this treasure that no one can ever take from you! This knowledge is yours forever.