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Year 10 GCSE - Joints

GCSE PE B453 - Lesson 6

D Miller

on 19 February 2014

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Transcript of Year 10 GCSE - Joints

Recap on Synovial Joints
The types of synovial Joints
Range of Movements

Allows movement in one plane only (uniaxial)

Knee and Elbow
Hinge Joint
Allows a wide range of movement and occurs when a round head of bone fits into a cup-shaped depression

Shoulder & Hip joint

e.g. throwing a javelin, bowling a cricket ball
Ball and Socket
Flexion - reducing the angle at a joint (bending)

Extension - Increasing the angle at a joint (straightening)

Abduction - movement of a limb away from the centre of the body..AWAY from BODY AB

Adduction - movement of a limb towards the centre of the body (ADDing to body)

Rotation - The act of rotating at a fixed joint

Circumduction- A circular movement, which combines flexion,extension, abduction, and adduction so that the movement of the body-part describes a cone shape.

Ranges of Movement
Ligaments: Connects bone to bone, and stops wrongful movement from a joint - they are strong and hold joints in place, whilst controlling the stability and movement
Structure of Joints
Various problems are associated with joints.

Short-term effects of exercise to joints:
Problems Associated
with Joints
There are different types of joint in the human body, including some that allow little or no movement.

Fibrous (immoveable) Example...

Cartilagenous (partially moveable) Example...

Synovial joints (freely moving) Example...
Types of Joint
e.g. using the knee joint when kicking a conversion in rugby union
A convex part of one bone fits into a concave part of another bone
Cartilage: soft connective tissue, prevents bones from wearing, has no blood supply - newly born babies have a skeleton of cartilage which gets mostly replaced with bone (ossification). Also is used as a shock absorber

Synovial Fluid: lubricates the joint, reduces friction on the joint surfaces, allowing all parts to move against each other smoothly, helps keep joint free from infection - same concept as oil being used on a squeaky door hinge
Synovial membrane - encloses the fluid, acts as a wall to keep the fluid in the joint
Movement releases synovial fluid --> synovial fluid becomes thinner --> allows a greater range of movement
--> the joints get looser
Long term effect of exercise on joints:
Connective tissue becomes more flexible, increased range of movement becomes sustained, joints get looser
Inflammation of Joints

Wear and tear causes osteoarthritis, and occurs more in older people and following excessive use such as in sportsmen, and affects weight bearing joints like the hip and knee.
Main focus :Joints
Resistant exercises develop muscle strength - tendons pulling on bones boosts bone strength

Weight bearing exercises useful to strengthen muscles, tendons and joints

Age Injury Obese Dietary Intake
Smoker Amount of exercise Gender
Footwear Work/lifestyle
What aspects of lifestyle could affect the health of bones and joints?
Arthritis is inflammation of one or more joints. A joint is the area where two bones meet. There are over 100 different types of arthritis.

Joint inflammation may result from:

•An auto-immune disease (the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue)
•Broken bone
•General "wear and tear" on joints
•Infection, usually by bacteria or virus

Arthritis may occur in men or women. Osteoarthritis is the most common type.
Today's Objective: You will develop an understanding of the different types of synovial joints, and their movements
By the end of the lesson you will have learned about:

Joints enable the body to move.
Joints are the place where 2 bones meet.
Each type of physical activity will make particular demands on
certain joints

Joints are structured for either STRENGTH or MOBILITY.

Saddle Joint
A saddle joint is more versatile than a hinge joint, It allows movement in two directions. The saddle joint gives the human thumb the ability to cross over the palm of the hand.

Saddle joint is found at the base of the thumbs - and looks like a saddle on a horse, hence its name!
Sporting Examples
Similar to the ball and socket joint, the condyliod joint allows every movement except rotation - these joints are found at the wrist and ankle
Sporting examples...
Tendons: Tendons attach MUSCLE to BONE, they are strong but flexible - When muscles contract, the tendon is what allows that joint to move
What is a joint?
The structure of a knee joint showing the bones, ligaments, tendons, muscle and cartilage involved

GCSE Physical Education

Show Cartilage

Show Ligament

Show Tendons

Show Muscle

Show Bone


Patella (kneecap)

Cartilage (smooth, slippery, reduces friction, helps to reduce shock)

Tendon (this joins muscle to bone)

Ligament (tough strip of tissue joining bone to bone)

Synovial fluid (oils or lubricates the joint helping it to move more easily)


Ball-shaped end to long bone of leg or femur (rounded ends to bones ensure easy movement with little friction)

The structure of a knee joint showing the bones, ligaments, tendons, muscle and cartilage involved

The Muscular, Skeletal, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Systems

UNIT 1 - Information

GCSE Physical Education

In four groups: create a revision worksheet
Pivot Joint
a freely moving joint in which movement is limited to rotation only.

Only found in the Neck Or?...A and A what is it?
Gliding movements – where 2 bones with flat surfaces slide on each other – forward and back with slight sideways movement
Gliding Joint
Only found in our hands and Feet...Carpals and tarsals
Sporting examples: Darts, bowls...
Full transcript