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Archaeology in the Newman Collection
Transcript of Archaeology in the Newman Collection
History 486 Spring 2013 A.T. Newman and Archaeology Old Copper Complex The Old Copper Complex is a prehistoric tool making tradition found in the Great Lakes region of the United States, centered around Eastern Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Old Copper began around 4,000 BC and was a complex (tradition), which are not confined to any single culture. Examples of Archaeological finds in the Newman Collection Photo of Kincaid Archaeological Site from the top of Mound 8 provided by Michael Ekenstedt Elk Bone Scraper Handle
Iron Trade Axes
Stone Hand Axes
Old Copper Complex Tools Projectile Points
Flakes Celts (selts) Bifaces Flakes A common Neolithic (new stone age) tool.
Celts are typically polished stones used like an ax (for cutting) or an adz (for scraping).
The head of the celt is typically grooved for attachment to a wooden shaft (but not always). Stone (lithic) flakes are parts of rock removed from a larger stone 'core' by percussion or pressure, most commonly through the process of flint knapping.
Flakes can either be formed into tools themselves or left as remnants of the tool making process. A biface is a stone tool that has "two faces", or finished sides, and is one of the oldest, traditional tools used by humans. Bifaces are usually formed through a process called flint knapping.
Flint knapping is the process of making tools by pressure or direct percussion (striking) to "flake" off parts of the stone to create a formal tool. The creator and original owner of this collection was A.T. Newman.
Newman was a member and officer of the Wisconsin Archaeological Society for many years. This document is a publication by the Wisconsin Archaeoogical Society from January 1924 Another member of the society with whom Newman had correspondence with was Charles E. Brown of the Wisconsin Historical Society.
The correspondence from Newman to Brown, as documented by Brown's papers, were about many of the archaeological sites and artifacts Newman found in North Western Wisconsin during his years as an amateur archaeologist. The indigenous peoples participating in this tradition used the 90+% pure copper found around Lake Michigan and Superior to create their tools which were created through a process of hand hammering and annealing (heating). Old Copper Spear Point from the Newman Collection Brown, Charles E. Papers. 1828-1944
Wisconsin Archeological Society. The Wisconsin Archeologist. January 1924. http://archive.org/details/wisconsinarcheol03wiscrich (accessed February 13, 2013).
Wisconsin Archaeological Society. "About the Society" 2012. http://wiarcheologicalsociety.org/about/ (accessed May 5, 2013) The Wisconsin Archeological Society is a not for profit organization run and staffed primarily by volunteers. The Society has been around and operating out of the Milwaukee Public Museum since the late 1800s. The Society later became incorporated by the state in 1901.
Through events and publications like the Wisconsin Archeologist, the Society aims to provide a number of opportunities for the public to become more informed about various prehistoric and historic archaeological resources in Wisconsin. Various Projectile Points