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PART 1 - Species - CLOWNFISH - Wilkerson's Lost Chapters

by Matt Pedersen
by

Matt Pedersen

on 15 November 2014

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Transcript of PART 1 - Species - CLOWNFISH - Wilkerson's Lost Chapters

Joyce Wilkerson's Lost Edition
SPECIES
GENETICS
HYBRIDS
THE PATH FORWARD
Currently 30 Recognized Clownfish Species
and #30.
Premnas biaculetus
Clownfish species are generally divided into a few "complexes" per current taxonomy
Species are not "Cut and Dry"
Two "New" Species Described in 2008 and 2010
Two "species" of dubious validity
Genetic Research Suggests Rethinking Relationships and Evolutionary Paths
source - http://users.atw.hu/fishindex/teleostei/euteleostei/percomorpha/perciformes/labroidei/pomacentridae/amphiprioninae.htm
"The Base Unit of Conservation" - Dr. Luiz Rocha
source - http://www.fishbase.org
At
least
two possible species (in my opinion) in need of review...
Geography's Influence on Species & Diversity
Source:

Finding Nemo: Molecular phylogeny and evolution of the unusual life style of anemonefish

Simona Santini, Giovanni Polacco, 2006
Tropheus
diversity in Lake Tanganyika
Oophaga histrionica
geographic races and variants
Why Geography Matters
Cinnamon Clownfish - A. melanopus
races in the ocean
The Red Clownfish from FIJI (and Tonga)
Bred as
A. rubrocinctus
Later suggested
A. melanopus
Finally described as
A. barberi
But it ALWAYS remained
"The Red Clownfish from FIJI" (and Tonga)
source: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/7/137/
Nuclear and mitochondrial data reveal different evolutionary processes
in the Lake Tanganyika cichlid genus Tropheus
Source - Graphic courtesy Andrew Clark
Polymorphism and population variation
For example, a range of phenotypes in wild-collected
Oophaga sylvatica
'Paru'

These wild frogs were all collected from the Otokiki reserve; (143 acres of tropical rainforests of northwestern Ecuador)

"Geographical barriers, ecological gradients, genetic drift, and sexual selection are the main mechanisms...which are [speculated as] shaping the variation observed."
Polymorphism and population variation
What about
Amphiprion clarkii?
source - Images Wikiri /
text - http://www.dendroworks.co.uk/index.php/available/54
Conservation-minded breeding
seeks to preserve naturally-occuring biodiversity*
*But how do you preserve that which you don't even understand?
Let's learn about our
30 Clownfish species
(and their variations):
We only conserve that
which we know.
Subgenus
Amphiprion
; Clarkii-Complex
Subgenus
Amphiprion
; Tomato-Complex
Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldren - website downloaded years ago via Archive.org
Subgenus
Phalerebus
; Skunk-Complex
Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldren - website downloaded years ago via Archive.org
Subgenus
Paramphiprion
; Saddleback-Complex
Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldren - website downloaded years ago via Archive.org
Subgenus
Actinicola
; Percula-Complex
Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldren - website downloaded years ago via Archive.org
Genus
Premnas
- the Maroon Clownfish
Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldren - website downloaded years ago via Archive.org
Amphiprion clarkii
Amphiprion akindynos
Sources - Captive-bred by Sea & Reef Aquaculture (UL), CB via Proaquatix (LL), wild pair via Pacific Island Aquatics (Right)
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Amphiprion allardi
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Photos - Wild Subadult, Matt Pedersen (top right); Wild Pair (top left), CB dark juvenile (lower left), CB light juveniles (lower right) - all Sustainable Aquatics
Amphiprion bicinctus
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Captive-bred juvenile, top right - courtesy Sea & Reef Aquaculture. Wild adult, bottom right - J.E. Randall
Amphiprion chagosenis
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Image - Rick Winterbottom - Creative Commons - http://eol.org/data_objects/24180561
Amphiprion chrysogaster
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Images - Top Left - Juvenile, Top right, adult (both Sanjay Joshi). Bottom center - wild juveniles - Pacific Island Aquatics
Amphiprion chrysopterus
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Top left - Irian Jaya, Bali Aquarich. Top Center - PNG, EcoAquariums PNG, Top Right, Bottom left - Marshall Islands, Pacific Island Aquatics, Bottom Center - Fijian, Dr. Ryan - www.ryanphotographic.com
Amphiprion fuscocaudatus
Image - J.E. Randall - http://fishbase.org/Photos/PicturesSummary.php?ID=11842&what=species
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Amphiprion latifasciatus
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Image - right - Laurent Plantard, Creative Commons - http://fishbase.org/photos/thumbnailssummary.php?Genus=Amphiprion&Species=latifasciatus# | Top Left - GNU, Aquaportal.com | Bottom Left - Frontier Madagascar
Amphiprion omanensis
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Images - Top row - Richard Field - Bottom Row - J.E. Randall - http://fishbase.org/Photos/ThumbnailsSummary.php?Genus=Amphiprion&Species=omanensis
Amphiprion tricinctus
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Wild Tricintus Photographs - Pacific Island Aquatics
Amphiprion frenatus
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Top Row - Wild Philippine Tomato Clownfish - RVS Fishworld. Bottom Left - Wild, Majuro, Marshall Islands - Pacific Island Aquatics - Bottom Center - Captive Bred juvenile, ORA
Amphiprion barberi
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Photos - top left - Paddy Ryan - www.ryanphotographic.com | top right - captive bred juvenile, ORA | Bottom Left - Tongan Wild, J.E.Randall | Center Right - Fijian Wild, J.E. Randall
Amphiprion rubrocintus
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home
Top left - J.E.Randall - http://pbs.bishopmuseum.org/images/JER/detail.asp?size=i&cols=10&ID=-264849592 | Top Right - Phill Heemstra / FishWise Professional | Bottom row - Darren Nancarrow
Some wild photos at http://reefcentral.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1529412&page=5, http://reefcentral.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1529412&page=6, http://reefcentral.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1529412&page=36
Amphiprion melanopus
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Top Left Group of four - J.E. Randall, TL Australia, TR Noumea New Caledonia, BL Palau, BR Micronesia | Top Right, Kwajelian Atoll, Marshall Islands, Pacific Island Aquatics. Bottom left - Stripeless / Polymoprhic form,
Coral Sea - Sustainable Aquatics captive bred. | Bottom right - captive bred New Caledonia, ORA
Amphiprion ephippium
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Top left - Indonesia; Pulau Putri, J.E. Randall - http://pbs.bishopmuseum.org/images/JER/images.asp?nm=Amphiprion&loc=&size=i&cols=10, Top Center - Sumatra,, Right, F1 Sumatran juveniles, Bottom, ORA
Amphiprion mccullochi
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Left - Captive-bred juvenile, ORA | Right - J.E. Randall, Wild Adult - http://fishbase.org/summary/9208
Amphiprion akallopisos
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Left - captive bred,, Sustainable Aquatics -| Right, Wild Image, fish from Kenya, Dennis Polach - Creative Commons - http://eol.org/data_objects/24176635
Amphiprion pacificus
Image - Josh Jensen - http://www.underseaproductions.com/
Amphiprion sandaracinos
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Images - Top Left, PNG Research, , | all others captive bred - Bali Aquarich, Top Right ORA, Bottom Right Sustainable Aquatics, Iriian Jaya location, Bottom left Sea & Reef Aquaculture
Amphiprion leucokranos
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Images - Top Left - PNG, Thane Millitz, https://www.facebook.com/marineaquariumtraderesearch; Top Right - ORA wild broodstock; Bottom Left - PNG, SEASMART. Inset Collage - Ashton Gainsford, T Militz
Amphiprion perideraoin
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Left Column - Top, Kwajelian Atoll, Marshall Islands, Middle and Bottom "Sunkist" variants, - all Pacific Island Aquatics | Top Right - captive-bred Sunkist, Fijian, Sustainable Aquatics - Bottom Right,c-bred, ORA
Amphiprion nigripes
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Images - Top Row - wild fish, Pacific Island Aquatics | Bottom Left - CB Bali Aquarich | Bottom Right - CB Sustainable Aquatics
Amphiprion thiellei
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Images: Top Row - Clarkii from Philippines - RVS Fishworld Inc., ; Bottom Row Sri Lanka (left), Indian Ocean (right) - Bali Aquarich
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Sketch Source - Anemonefish / Clownfish in the Wild! - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Sketch Source - Anemonefish / Clownfish in the Wild! - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Sketch Source - Anemonefish / Clownfish in the Wild! - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Sketch Source - Anemonefish / Clownfish in the Wild! - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Amphiprion polymnus
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon- website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Main Image (top left) captive bred brown form, ORA
Amphiprion sebae
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Top Left - Wild, Richard Field, http://fishbase.org/photos/PicturesSummary.php?ID=11846&what=species | Top Right - captive bred, Sustainable Aquatics | Bottom Right -CB, Sea & Reef Aquaculture, center CB Bali Aquarich
Amphiprion latezonatus
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Image - Top Right, Adult, Sustainable Aquatics.All other images CB juveniles, bred by Karen Brittain, photos by Pacific Island Aquatics
Amphiprion ocellaris
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Images - Captive Bred, Top Left (ORA), Bottom Left (Sea & Reef Aquacure) Bottom Middle (Sustainable Aquatics) Bottom Right (Proaquatix) | Cluster of 4 - Wild, Philippines, various locales - RVS Fish World Inc
Amphiprion ocellaris
"Darwin"
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Images - all captive bred - Main (top left) Proaquatix, bottom left Sustainable Aquatics, Bottom Center ORA, Bottom Right Sea & Reef Aquaculture
See one in the wild at http://reefcentral.com/forums/showthread.php?t=1529412
Amphiprion percula
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.htm
Premnas biaculeatus
Sketch Source - Anemonefish in the Wild - Kylie Waldon - website downloaded years ago via http://web.archive.org/web/20070830073646/http://wish.wodonga.tafe.edu.au/~kwaldon/home.html
Top Left Image - White Stripe Marooni, CB by Sea & Reef Aquaculture | Wild Solomon Islands White Stripe, Scott Johnson - http://www.fishbase.us/photos/UploadedBy.php?autoctr=9974&win=uploaded

Premnas epigrammata

Images - Top Left, juvenile, Proaquatix | Top Right,, young fish showing color, Sustainable Aquatics | Bottom Left - CB fish with yellow color in - Bali Aquarich |
Botom right - an old adult GSM belong to Randy Donowitz; image Sanjy Joshi
Barrier Reef Clownfish - Eastern Australia, New Caledonia, Loyalty Islands
Allardi Clownfish - Western Indian Ocean; East Coast of Africa, and Mauritius
Clarkii Clownfish - Wide-ranging, Indo-West Pacific
Twoband Clownfish - Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Chagos
Chagos Clownfish, Chagos
Mauritian Clownfish, Mauritius and Réunion Island
Blue Stripe Clownfish, Orangefin Clownfish, widespread in the Pacific Ocean
"The Blue Stripe Anemonefish from Fiji and Tonga have YELLOW tails, and the Blue Stripe Anemonefish from Solomon and Marshall Islands have WHITE tails."
- Blue Zoo Aquatics
Seychelles Clownfish, Seychelles, Aldabra (Indian Ocean)
Madagascar Clownfish, Madagascar, Comoro Islands (Indian Ocean)
Oman Clownfish, Arabian Sea coast of Oman
Three Band Clownfish, Marshall Islands & Bikini Atoll
Tomato Clownfish | Western Pacific
Barberi Clownfish | Fiji, Tonga
Ruby Clownfish | Northwestern Australia
Cinnamon Clownfish | Pacific Ocean
Australia
Palau
Noumea, New Caledonia
Micronesia
Kwajelian Atoll, Marshall Islands
Coral Sea
New Caledonia
Fire Clownfish, Red Saddle Clownfish | Eastern Indian Ocean
McCulloch's Clownfish, Whitesnout Clownfish | Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island
Top - Australian Black Clarkii - captive bred, Sustainable Aquatics. Bottom, Australian Black Clarkii - Bali Aquarich
A. clarkii
"Australian Black"
Philippines
Philippines
Sri Lanka
Indian Ocean
Irian Jaya
PNG
Fiji
Marshall Is.
Marshall Is.
Majuro, Marshall Is.
all Philippines ->
Research suggests
A. mccullochi
is most closely related to
A. akindynos.


"A. mccullochi is phylogenetically very distant from A. latezonatus and closely related to A. akindynos"
- Santini et. al., 2006



Perhaps McCullochi doesn't belong in the Tomato species complex, but rather belongs in the Clarkii complex?
Skunk Clownfish | Indian Ocean
Pacific Clownfish | Pacific: Wallis Island, Tonga, Fiji and Samoa
Orange Skunk Clownfish | Western Pacific Ocean
Amphiprion
x
leucokranos
Gainsford, A., van Herwerden, L., Jones, G. (in review) Hierarchical behavior, habitat use and species size differences shape evolutionary outcomes of hybridization in a coral reef fish. Journal of Evolutionary Biology.
Images - Ashton Gainsford, Thane Militz

"Is Leucokranos (White-bonnet clownfish) a hybrid? Why yes, yes it is - according to the most recent research. "

- Thane Militz
Whitebonnet Clownfish | Western Central Pacific Ocean
Pink Skunk Clownfish | Western Pacific Ocean
Black Footed Clownfish | Western Indian Ocean: Maldives and Sri Lanka
Theille's Clownfish | Western Central Pacific (Cebu, Philippines)
"Some have argued that it is a hybrid between
A. chrysopterus
and
A. sandaracinos
...others firmly believe a different hybrid pairing,
A. sandaracinos
X
A. ocellaris
, is at the root of
A. thiellei
(Dr. Burgess is reported to be of the opinion that it is a valid species.)"

- CORAL Magazine, March/April 2014, Page 31
Saddleback Clownfish | Western Pacific
Sebae Clownfish | Indian Ocean
Wide Band Clownfish | Lord Howe Island, Eastern Australia
Philippines - example of classic Brown form
Papua New Guinea - Yellow Chested Form
Black Form - Top Row Captive-Bred, ORA - Bottom Left, CB Bali form, BaliAquarich - Bottom Right - wild Black Philippines (Cebu) form - RVS Fish World
All Images - RVS Fish World Inc.
Top - Wild PNG, Matt Pedersen
Right - PNG Captive-Bred, Bali Aquarich
Maroon Clownfish | Lord Howe Island, Eastern Australia
All photos are wild, Philippine Maroons - images by RVS Fish World Inc.
PNG White Stripe Maroons - all fish wild; Top Row, J.E. Randall; creative commons, http://fishbase.org/photos/thumbnailssummary.php?Genus=Premnas&Species=biaculeatus | Bottom Row, Matt Pedersen
"Sumatra / Gold Stripe"
Gold Stripe Maroon Clownfish | Indo-Pacific Border (Indian Ocean?) ; Sumatra, possibly East Java, possibly Malaysia/Borneo
Currently recognized only as
P. biaculeatus
, but was described decades ago as
P. epigrammata
(sometimes also
P. epigramma
)
Ocellaris Clownfish | Far-Eastern Indian Ocean & Western Pacific
Research suggests
A. latezonatus
is much more closely related to the Antinicola subgenus, which includes
A. ocellaris
and
A. percula
.
Black Ocellaris Clownfish | Darwin, along the NW coast of Australia
Percula Clownfish, Orange Clownfish | Western Pacific; separate from Ocellaris
All 4 images - RVS Fish World Inc.. Top Left and Top Right - Wild, Phillipines. Bottom Left - San Pascual, Philippines; Bottom Right - Muntinlupa City, Philippines.
But what about this Black "Variant"?
Currently treated as a unique species in the MBI.
geographically isolated
matures slower
has smaller spawns,
extremely prone to misbarring
sounds more like
A. percula
?

We'll come back
to this "Variant"...
And then there's this yellow-striped "Variant"...
All fish here are wild from Papua New Guinea
Top left - SEASMART | Center Top & Center Middle - Unique Corals | Upper & Lower Right, Bottom - Thane Militz
All fish on white are captive-bred true percs.
Top - Sustainable Aquatics
Middle - Proaquatix
Bottom - ORA
Less Aggressive
Significantly Wider Stripes
Geographically Isolated
Strong tendency to lose stripes from bottom up as fish ages.

If you're going to walk a tightrope, you better do it right.
...are the key to being a better Designer Clownfish breeder.
CLOWNFISHES
"The species
A. nigripes
lives in the Maldives, Laccadives and in Sri Lanka and the closely related species
A. chagosensis
in the Chagos archipelago. Both species are distributed (without overlapping) uniquely in the central Indian Ocean and present similar morphology, such as light body color (yellow to orange), truncate caudal fin and darkish anal and pelvic fins, but
A. nigripes
has a single white bar, while
A. chagosensis
has two bars."

- Santini et. all, 2006
DOES
A. chagosensis
belong in the Skunk Complex?
source - Finding Nemo: Molecular phylogeny and evolution of the unusual life style of anemonefish
Where is
A. latezonatus
?
source: Finding Nemo: Molecular phylogeny and evolution of the unusual life style of anemonefish - 2006
Being most closely related to
A. chagosensis
, should

1)
A. chagosensis
join
A. nigripes
here in the Skunk-complex

- OR -

2) should
A. nigripes
actually be thought of as part of the Clarkii-complex, where
A. chagosensis
is placed?
This just in...
source:
The radiation of the clownfishes has two geographical replicates
. Glenn Litsios, Peter B. Pearman, Deborah Lanterbecq, Nathalie Tolou and Nicolas Salamin - 2014
WHITE TAIL
YELLOW
TAILS
Are we possibly looking at two species within
the various
A. chrysopterus
races?
"The position of
A. chrysopterus
from the Solomon Islands is surprising and most of the nodes that separate this individual from the two other
A. chrysopterus
we sampled [Fiji & Moorea] are weakly supported....Further investigation is necessary to understand whether or not
A. chrysopterus
from the Solomon Islands is truly a hybrid or represents an undescribed species."
Fiji, Moorea (Inset)
Solomon Islands
source:
The radiation of the clownfishes has two geographical replicates
. Glenn Litsios, Peter B. Pearman, Deborah Lanterbecq, Nathalie Tolou and Nicolas Salamin - 2014
images; LEFT - Fiji, Ryan Photographic | INSET - Moorea, Jeffery T. Williams, Moorea Biocode | RIGHT - Solomon Islands, Blue Zoo Aquatics
by Matt Pedersen
A. chrysopterus - Maybe even FIVE SPECIES?
Additional research revealed at least 3, possibly 4 distinct phenotypes, in as many as 6 geographic clusters. Yuri Barros contends 5 distinct species; I'm leaning towards two, or possibly three.
Map plot of geographic forms by phenotype by Matt Pedersen
images; Top Right - Fiji, Ryan Photographic | Far Right - Moorea, Jeffery T. Williams, Moorea Biocode | Bottom left - PNG, EcoAquariums PNG | Top Left - Guam, David Burdick | Top Center, Marshall Islands, J.E. Randall
Source - https://www.flickr.com/photos/maynard/124955398/in/photostream/ - Creative Commons BY-NC-SA
Full transcript