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History of Education in America
Transcript of History of Education in America
Education at the Turn of the Century (Early 1900s)
Early 1900s: Only 7% of students attend school past age 13
1896: Plessy v. Ferguson: Supreme Court rules in favor of "separate but equal" education laws
1909: 1st junior high opened in Ohio: focus on adolescent development & better preparation for high school curriculum
1918: Compulsory attendance in primary school required in all states
1918: Texas passes law prohibited instruction in any language other than English
Education in the 20th Century
1980s: 90% of children attending kindergarten.
Curriculum begins to reflect more cultural/ethnic diversity.
Growth in middle school education: more than 15,000 by 2000
2001: The ESEA reaffirmed by Congress as "No Child Left Behind" - standards for public school education
Industrialization in America: Education in 1800s
The Civilization Act of 1819: Focus on the cultural transformation of Native Americans
1827: Creation of the 1st school board of education
1830s - Creation of "common schools": public primary schools for reading, writing & arithmetic (Horace Mann)
1852: Massachusetts passes the first compulsory attendance law
Curriculum in the Colonies
Focus on religious education and moral lessons in addition to basic reading, writing and arithmetic
New England Primer: 1st widely used textbook (included Lord's Prayer, Ten Commandments, etc.)
Schools in the Colonies
Massachusetts Law of 1642: 1st law to require formal education (Learn to read so citizen can understand the Bible)
Connecticut passes statutes to establish schools
1771: Daniel Webster creates his "readers" - focus on spelling, grammar
1789: US Constitution is ratified with no mention of education
Native Americans & Education
Focus on learning Christianity and Anglo-Saxon culture
Curriculum during the Industrial Revolution
McGuffey Reader: Shifting industrialized society --> more secular content, stories
Mostly male characters
Still has lessons focused on moral development of students
Create "literate & disciplined" workers for industrial jobs
Curriculum in the early 1900s
Shift from the McGuffey readers to "Dick and Jane" readers: reflect middle-class lifestyles, values and behaviors
A Time for Change (1950s - 1970s)
1940s-50s: Emergence of student-centered/humanistic education
1954: "Brown v. Board of Education" - Supreme Court rules school segregation is unconstitutional
1958: Congress passes "National Defense Education Act" (NDEA) - increased instruction on science, math & foreign languages
1964: Civil Rights Act passes - prohibits discrimination in school programs & activities that receive federal funding
1965: Elementary-Secondary Education Act (ESEA) passed
1968: Federal government supports bilingual education as reasonable option for ELL students
1972: Congress pass Title IX Educational Amendments outlawing discrimination based on sex
Civil Rights Movement & Education
Once "Plessy v. Ferguson was found to be unconstitutional, school systems (especially in the South) struggled, often violently, with desegregation. By the mid 1960s, only 2% of black students attended segregated schools.
Latinos & Education
Many of the same segregation issues faced by African-American students were experienced by Latinos in public education. Latino students struggled keenly with language & cultural discrimination.
Individual Reflective Writing:
Where Are We Now?
Reflect on your experiences & knowledge of public education: what has changed? Are there things that have stayed the same or cycled back around? In your opinion, what should be the goals of public education today?
Hot Topics in Education in the 21st Century
What are the current issues in P-12 education that are influencing the course of your teaching career?
Common Core Curriculum Standards
Early Childhood Education (Head Start/Pre-K)
Value-Added Teacher Assessment
Evaluating Teacher Education Programs
High-Stakes Testing (TCAP, NAEP, PARCC, etc.)
From "Introduction to teaching: Making a difference in student learning"
(Hall, Quinn, & Gollnick, Eds., 2014)