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A History of Art Education
Transcript of A History of Art Education
chapter 4 of A. D. Effland's "The History of Art Education" (1990)
The Common School Movement in the US
Vocal music and drawing were prescribed as ways of elevating moral standards.
“Drawing may well go hand in hand with music; so may the cultivation of libraries and the cultivation of a taste for reading, etc.” - Mann
Boston’s school system became the heart of the common school movement.
English grammar school as the heart of the system, since few went on to the Latin school.
William Bentley Fowle
Monitorial Method of
Innovations like geography lessons involving the drawing of maps on the blackboard, linear drawing, printing, physical exercise, needdlework and music.
He highlighted the difference between the systematic type of drawing of the monitorial schools and the “fancy” drawing of the private schools.
1. would improve handwriting
2. was essential industrial skill
3. was a moral force
Crime, prostitution and drunkenness became serious urban problems.
As early as 1825, class distinctions between public and private schools were quite sharp.
The common school was the mediating link between himself and the unlearned masses.
State-supported schools and methods from Pestalozzi and Prussian normal schools could succeed in achieving a literate, moral, pious,
and industrious society.
European Origins of the Common School Pedagogy
Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi
Rousseau's "Emile" and Pestalozzi's "Leonard and Gertrude"
Nature is the source of truth, and truth is obtained through the senses.
Basis for Pestalozzian Method:
He believed that people learn by hearing sounds, both spoken and sung
- form and number, which are measurement and drawing
- simple sense to abstraction
- measurement of sound comes rhythm in music, measurement of form comes geometry and drawing
A natural progression – one receives sense impressions that are vague, disorganized, and confused then finds order and clarity. If impressions are confused, the resulting understanding will be flawed.
- To bring all things essentially related to each other together
- To subordiante all unessential things
- To arrange all objects according to their likenesses
- To strengthen sense impressions of important objects
- To arrange knowledge in graduated steps
- To make the simple perfect before going on to the complex
Simple Geometric Figures:
- straight and curved lines
- plane and solid shapes
- simple ornaments
Dissemination of Pestalozzian Pedagogy in Prussia
Wilhelm von Humboldt as Minister of Public Instruction
"the necessary practice of the faculty of observation and representation, a correct knowledge of relationships, the ability to translate objects from nature directly onto paper, and to use the drawing as a kind of language."
The Beginnings of Public School Drawing Instruction
Pestalozzi's Drawing Method
Johannes Christoff Buss
Students used to start by copying other drawings.
Students started with the most difficult subject of all, the human figure.
Lines, angles, and curves are the foundation of the art of drawing. These were the simplest elements in the vocabulary of visual forms (ABC der Anschauung)
- horizontal, vertical, oblique
- right, acute, obtuse
- square, circle
Efforts of Pestalozzi's Associates
number, form, language
- exercises in form with reference to truth (geometry)
- exercises in form with reference to beauty (drawing)
by slow degrees we shall approach the difficult;
by slower degrees we shall approach the most difficult
a ladder, table, chair, house
light and shade
From Rousseau to Pestalozzi to Neef about teaching drawing through the imitation of nature:
not to provide the student with a drawing master who would only ask him to copy copies and draw drawings.
"Nature should be his only teacher, and things his only models. He should have the real thing before his eyes, not its copy on paper - a house from a house, a tree from a tree, a man from a man..."
"for art's sake"
Krusi's Inventive Drawing
- 1st part of the drawing system was the synthetic series and was designed for use in the primary grades. It dealt with the outlines of forms only and was described as being “specially calculated to stimulate the observing powers, give freedom of movement, and cultivate taste.”
- 2nd was the analytic series for the intermediate schools. Placed greater emphasis upon proportion and accuracy of division.
- 3rd and 4th dealt with the laws of perspective and the principles of geometric drawing and shading.
Lowell Mason and William Whitaker
Impact of Pestalozzian Drawing in the US
Annals of Education (William Woodbridge)
Common School Journal (Mann)
Connecticut Common School Journal
Barnard's American Journal of Education
"Drawing and Designing, Vocal and Instrumental Music"
Excellence in Hand Writing
Influence of German Immigration
- Cincinnati and Cleveland
- Boston and Philadelphia
The Art Crusaders of the Antebellum Era
"The American Drawing Book" by John Gadsby Chapman
ANYONE WHO CAN LEARN TO WRITE CAN LEARN TO DRAW