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AP WORLD HISTORY: Period 3--Part 2
Transcript of AP WORLD HISTORY: Period 3--Part 2
PERIOD 3--PART 2
Which of the following was NOT a characteristic of American civilization during the post classical period?
*elaborate cultural systems
*highly developed agriculture
*large cities based on elaborate political and economic organizations
The northern nomadic peoples who entered central Mexico following the decline of Teotihuacan were the __________________.
The people who succeeded the Toltecs as the rulers of central Mexico were the ____________.
In the period shortly after the arrival of the Aztecs in the valley of Mexico, what was the nature of the political organization of the region?
*hunting and gathering societies
What city did the Aztecs establish circa 1325 on a marshy island in Lake Texcoco?
While the position of Aztec women in many ways paralleled that of women in other civilizations at a similar stage of development, what was the significant difference between the lives of women in Mesoamerica and in the Mediterranean world?
*Women in Mesoamerica participated fully in the military.
*Peasant women were more highly educated in Mesoamerica.
*There was no polygamy practiced in Mesoamerica.
*Aztec women were unable to inherit or to pass property on to heirs.
What was the Aztec view of history?
*They believed in a linear view of history dedicated to the premise of Aztec superiority for eternity.
*Like other Mesoamerica peoples, the Aztecs believed a cyclical pattern of repetitive destructions of the world.
*Because they lacked a calendar system, the Aztecs had no formal historical viewpoint.
*Aztec women had to spend more time grinding grain.
What made possible the rapid revival of empire under the Tang?
*The rebuilding of the imperial bureaucracy using Confucian ideology
*The abandonment of Confucianism in favor of the more widely practiced Buddhism
*The willingness of Tang to abandon traditional approaches to government
*Massive grain imports from southern China led to a population increase.
What dynasty ended the period of political chao after the fall of the Qin-Han was the ____________________.
By 1500, agriculture was
*largely diffused throughout the Americas, although not always in sedentary agricultural communities.
*practiced in sedentary communities and by nomadic pastoralists throughout the Americas.
*practiced in sedentary communities throughout the Americans.
*virtually unknown outside of Andean and Mesoamerican civilization zones.
Which of these would be utilized in the Inca empire, but NOT the Aztecs?
*elaborate road systems
*a semi-divine emperor
*extensive use of colonization
*use of local rulers in exchange for recognition of sovereignty
The Inca practiced _________ _____________; all political power and titles went to the ruler's successor, but his wealth was kept in the hands of the male descendants to support the cult of the dead Inca's mummy.
The capital of the Inca empire was
The most powerful of the Andean states between 900 and 1465 following the decline of Tihuanaco and Huari was
Who was the founder of the Song dynasty?
Which emperor's reign marked the high point of the Tang power?
What was the impact on Confucianism of the Tang repression of the Buddhists?
*Confucianism, like Buddhism, declined in popularity, and its place was taken by Daoism.
*Confucianism emerged as the central ideology of Chinese civilization until the 20th century.
*Confucianism and Daoism blended with Buddhism to form a new philosophy.
*Because Confucian scholar-gentry were associated with the persecution, Confucianism failed to generate much popular support outside the imperial government.
What ministry of the central imperial government was responsible for the administration of the examination system?
Who was the founder of the Tang dynasty?
What led to the downfall of the Sui dynasty?
*Widespread Buddhist religion
*The dissatisfaction of the Confucian scholar-gentry class
*Unsuccessful military campaigns
*Famines, which led to a depletion of economic resources
What made the reunification of China under the first Sui emperor possible?
*The support of the Buddhist monasteries
*The support of the Confucian scholar-gentry
*The threat of barbarian invasion
*The support of the ethnic Chinese aristrocracy
*The support of the nomadic warrior elite
Which of the following was NOT an eventual impact of the development of neo-Confucian schools of thought?
*The destruction of the mandarins
*The stifling of innovation and critical thinking in favor of traditionalism
*Historical experiences were held to be the most practical guide to life
*Reinforcement of class, age, and gender distinctions
Which of the following statements concerning the status of women in the Tang-Song era is most accurate?
*Tang-Song law recognized no women's rights.
*The spread of Buddhism provided women with greater opportunities and career alternatives within the monastic movement.
*The condition of women in general improved during the Tang-Song era.
*Women had more rights than ever before due to the influence of the Legalists.
*The assertion of male dominance within the family was especially pronounced in the thinking of the neo-Confucian philosophers.
In what way did foot-binding serve to diminish the independence of Chinese women by the end of the Song era?
*Upper-class women considered it high status and hoarded money to pay for it.
*Because foot-binding could only be afforded by the elite, poorer women were assigned to lower social status.
*Foot-binding sufficiently crippled women to effectively confine their mobility to their household.
*As foot-binding was required in order to practice certain professions, Chinese women found that occupational alternatives were diminished.
Which of the following was NOT a technological innovation of the Tang-Song era?
*Coal used for fuel
What religion played a key role in the transmission of Chinese civilization to Japan?
Life in the imperial court at Heian was described in what Japanese novel?
*Mirror of Lady Murasaki
*Tale of Genji
*Essential of Salvation
*Romance of the Rose
Warrior leaders in the 10th century in Japan who controlled provincial areas and ruled from small fortresses in the countryside were called ____________.
Mounted troops owing loyalty to the military elite were called _____________.
What kingdom was successful in establishing a unified and independent government in Korea?
Which of the following statements concerning the status of women during the era of the daimyos is most accurate?
*While the status of women among the artisan and merchant classes declined, the status of women among the warrior elite probably improved marginally.
*Women's status among the elite certainly improved during the era of the warlords, as they gained rights to inheritance.
*The rise of the handicraft industry caused the status of women to decline throughout the period.
*Women often participated in martial training during the era of the warlords, thus improving their social status.
*Women were excluded from inheritance and treated as defenseless appendages of their warrior fathers or husbands.
What was the political result of the wars that destroyed the Ashikaga Shogunate?
*Restored authority for the court aristocracy
*Division of Japan into 300 little states under the daimyos
*Restored the authority for the emperor
*The China model seemed more relevant to the Japanese.
*The rise of four large aristocratic states under powerful bushi.
What government replaced the Kamakura regime in the early 14th century in Japan?
What title was given to the military leader of the bakufu at Kamakura?
The victory of Minamoto marks the beginning of what period in Japanese history?
*The Fujiwara empire
*The feudal age
*The Tokugawa Shogunate
*The Onin war
*The Taika period
What was the impact of the rise of the samurai on the peasantry in Japan?
*Japanese peasants were reduced to the status of serfs bound to the land they worked.
*Peasants who were willing to be trained could become samurai.
*Although separated from the warriors by rigid class barriers, the peasantry achieved greater levels of personal freedom and economic prosperity.
*The creation of the samurai created a period of great social mobility in Japan during which people rapidly moved out of the peasantry and into the class of warriors.
What was the religious preference of the Korean elite?
What was the political result of the Vietnamese drive to conquer regions south of the Red River basin?
*The division of the Vietnamese into two kingdoms with capitals at Hue and Hanoi.
*The reconquest of the Red River valley by the Chinese during the Southern Song era.
*The creation of a highly centralized kingdom with its capital at Hanoi.
*The defeat of the Vietnamese and the fragmentation of the kingdom into 300 small kingdoms ruled by a warrior elite.
In most ways, the Mongols epitomized what type of society and culture?
What was the basic unit of Mongol society?
*The nuclear family
In the early 12th century, the Qin kingdom of northern China was defeated by a Mongol confederation under the leadership of ___________.
Which of the following statements concerning Chinggis Khan's early life is most accurate?
*He did not become leader of the Mongols until he had secured the assistance of his rival Batu.
*Following his father's death, he abandoned by many followers and captured by a rival tribe.
*He succeeded to the kingship of the Mongols at an early age as the only heir of his grandfather.
*Following the death of his father, he immediately enjoyed military success over rival clans.
What was the religious policy of the Mongol empire under Chinggis Khan?
*All religions were tolerated in his empire.
*He practiced no religious beliefs himself, but tolerated Islam only.
*After the Russian campaign the Mongols became Orthodox Christians
*He was converted to Islam late in life.
*Buddhism became the state religion of the Mongol empire.
Which of the khanates undertook the task of conquering Russia?
What was the nature of the Russian resistance to the Mongol invasion?
*As the leading commercial centers of Russia, Kiev and Novgorod allied to create a substantial miltiary force that saved those cities from destruction.
*The princes of Russia refused to cooperate among themselves and were routed individually.
*The Russian peasants conducted guerilla warfare under the leadership of the Kievan Rus.
The Russian appealed to the Byzantine Empire to provide them with military assistance against the Mongol.
What was the most significant impact of the period of the Mongol rule on Russia?
*The period of Mongol rule reinforced the isolation of Russia from western Europe and the developments of the Renaissance and Reformation.
*The Mongol domination resulted in the destruction of Eastern Orthodoxy and the rise of Nestorian Christianity.
*Mongol rule introduced Russia to advanced Asian technology imported from China.
*The Mongols aided the Russian in gaining political dominance over the peoples of the Asiatic steppes.
*The period of Mongol rule introduced many Islamic people into the region of Russia.
The Mongols were defeated in 1260 at Ain Jalut by the
*forces of the Byzantine Empire.
*Russian and Bulgarian forces.
*Mamluk dynasty of Egypt.
*crusader states and their Assassin allies.
In 1271, Kubilai Khan changed the name of the Mongol dynasty in China to _____________.
What was the status of Mongolian women during the Yuan dynasty of China?
*Mongolian women lost status as they fell under the social apparatus of the Confucian ideology.
*Mongol women were increasingly prevented from participating in hunting and martial activities, although they retained some influence in the household.
*Mongol women wholeheartedly adopted Chinese culture including the practice of foot-binding.
*Mongol women remained relatively independent, refused to adopt the practice of foot-binding, and retained their rights in property.
What admiral commanded China's great overseas expeditions between 1405 and 1433?
What Chinese dynasty succeeded the Mongol Yuan dynasty in China?
Which of the following statements concerning the political fragmentation of the Arabic world in the 1400s is most accurate?
*The Mongol conquests eliminated any form of centralized government in the Middle East until the 7th century.
*The political fragmentation caused by the fall of Baghdad lasted for several centuries under the decentralized administration of the Seljuk Turks.
*The political system was chaotic for 300 years until the rise of new political order under the Ottoman Turks.
*Following the fall of the Abbasid caliphate, the Middle East became part of the colonial empire of the the Turks.
*After the fall of the Abbasid caliphate, the emerging Ottoman Empire soon mastered most of the lands of the old caliphate plus the Byzantine corner.
What was one of the most important but indirect and unintended impacts of the Mongol drive to the west?
*The expansion of overseas trade to the Americas
*The closing of the Silk Road and other major trade routes led to isolation of the East
*The progressive desiccation of the central Asian steppes
*The tendency of the nomadic peoples to give up their lifestyle in preference for sedentary agriculture
*The demographic blow to Eurasian populations caused by the Black Death
Who was the Turkic nomadic leader who began a period of conquest beginning in the 1360s?
The founder of the Ming dynasty, Zhu Yuanzhand, came from what social class in China?
What two social groups that suffered low status under the Confucian social system benefited most from Yuan adminstration?
*Military elite and scholar-gentry
*Merchants and artisans
*Criminals and slaves
*Scholar-gentry and aristocracy
*Peasants and aristrocracy
Which of the following was NOT a contributing factor to the economic crises of the 14th century?
*Lack of technological advance in agriculture
*Withdrawal from the global trading network
What proportion of the European population died as a result of the 14th century plague?
In what region of Europe did the Renaissance begin?
(hint: a modern day country)
What was the Western response to the problems of international trade that they experienced in 1400?
*They began to pull back from all but regional trade networks found in the eastern Mediterranean.
*Western nations halted trade with Asia and the East and became more dependent on European-produced commodities.
*Many nations began explorations of alternative routes to Asia that would bypass the Middle East and Muslim realms.
*Overland trade routes through northern Russia were established to the East.