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Introduction to Rhetoric

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Anna Kinder

on 27 September 2016

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Transcript of Introduction to Rhetoric

the art of persuasion
What is

"Rhetoric may be defined as the faculty
of observing in any given case the available
means of persuasion."
The speaker must determine:
what he/she already knows about the topic
what else he/she needs to know to effectively argue the topic
which evidence is most useful
which evidence is credible
....and must:
investigate multiple perspectives
be able to use research to support claims
The Message
The speaker must speculate about the audience's:
expectations about topic
prior knowledge of topic
disposition/attitudes toward topic
level of experience regarding the topic
The Audience
Speakers employ:

who they are
what they have seen, experienced, or felt
what they know
...to help formulate their opinion/stance on a topic
The Speaker

1. Speaker
2. Audience
3. Message
4. Appeals

Aristotle's rhetorical triangle
The End
Political beliefs
Parents and peers
Other factors which can affect
the speaker's message include:
What this means…
Purpose: Your Reason For Writing

to sell

What are the purposes of rhetoric?
Many of the same factors which affect the writer also affect the audience
Social class
Past experience
Audience: To Whom are you Writing?
It is often to SELL an idea or product!
Activity: Super Bowl Commercial Time!
Get into partners. No groups of 3 unless there is an uneven number!!
Number a sheet of paper 10-1 (descending).
Write both partners' names on sheet.
Under each number, write: "Speaker, Audience, Message, Rhetorical Appeals," giving yourself room to write.
As we watch the next ten Super Bowl commercials, identify each speaker, audience, message, and rhetorical appeals used
Turn in at the end of class.
10 Super Bowl Commercials from 2015
Rhetorical "Appeals"
Ethos (Credibility)
Ethical appeal
Must earn respect of the audience
Must prove that you are worthy
of their time/ears
Must prove that you are an
authority/expert on the subject and can
be trusted
Pathos (Emotions)
Persuading an audience by appealing to his/her emotions
Enhances argument
This can be accomplished through language choices (words with heavy emotional connotations), images, statistics, etc.
Example of pathos
Sarah McLachlan "In the Arms of an Angel" Animal Cruelty Video
Logos (Logic)
Logos (Logical) means persuading by the use of reasoning.

This was Aristotle's favorite type of appeal.
Ethos Gone Wrong: Sheldon Cooper
Aristotle was a 4th century



1. Find an ad in a magazine, newspaper, or website (OR a
link to a commercial on Youtube that exemplifies one of the rhetorical appeals covered today):

Pathos (emotions)
Logos (logic)
Ethos (credibility)
2. Print/clip out the ad (or post a link to Edmodo)
3. On a separate sheet of paper, identify the following components: speaker, audience, message, appeals used
4. Write a 5-7 sentence paragraph evaluating the effectiveness of the ad.
5. Questions to consider:
Is it effective? Why/why not?
What makes it effective?
Are you personally swayed by the ad?
Would its target audience you identified be swayed?
Is its marketing strategy ethical or does it prey on those who are easily persuaded and impressionable?

Think: "4 out of 5 dentists recommend..."
Bell-work: Which of the following strategies is most likely to convince you of something or sell you a product? Why/why not?

A. Something that makes you feel an emotional reaction
B. Something that makes you think/appeals to you logically
C. If someone important or famous endorses the message or product

Provide an example.

"The Art of Persuasion"
The 4 components of the rhetorical situation:

List three controversial, arguable topics that
interest you.
Full transcript