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1931 China Floods

May 2011 - For Natural Disasters
by

Y. Cheung

on 28 October 2012

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Transcript of 1931 China Floods

1931 China Floods A series of floods that occurred during the Nanjing decade in the Republic of China era (Hongtu Real Estate Development Company, 2010) Central China -
areas along:
the Yellow River
the Yangtze River
the Huai River
(Wikipedia, 2011) Where (Free Printable Maps, 2008) When July 1931 to November 1931 - depending on the river (Wikipedia, 2011) and The Yellow River floods The Yangtze River floods The Huai River floods _____ - total area of 110,000 square kilometres was inundated after the Huai, Yangtze and Yellow rivers all exceeded their historical record flood stages simultaneously. (China Daily, 2006) July 1931 to November 1931
completely inundated 87,000 squared km
partially inundated 20,000 squared km
(Hongtu Real Estate Development Company, 2010) worst period was from July to August (Hongtu Real Estate Development Company, 2010)
Flooded more than 35,000 square miles of land (Conklin, 2000) 5,130,000 hectares of land were submerged
3,773,000 hectares of land were overflowed
(Jian, n.d.) References:
1. Conklin, T. (2000). Disasters!. New York, New York: Scholastic Inc.
2. Huang He floods. (2011). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved fromhttp://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1483621/Huang-He-floods
3. Hongtu Real Estate Development Company. (2011). Weather history. Retrieved from http://history.cultural-china.com/en/34H7420H12517.html
4. Hays, J. (2000, April). Heavy rain and floods in china. Retrieved from http://factsanddetails.com/china.php?itemid=395&catid=10&subcatid=65
5. Hongtu Real Estate Development Company, . (2011). 1931 china floods - the most devastating flood of the 20th century. Retrieved from http://history.cultural-china.com/en/34History7420.html
6. Hongtu Real Estate Development Company, . (2011). Death tolls and damages caused in the 1931 china floods. Retrieved from http://history.cultural-china.com/en/34H7420H12518.html
7. China Daily. (2006). History's worst flood finally revealed. China Daily, Retrieved from http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/cndy/2006-10/03/content_701197.htm
8. IBN Live. (2011). Top 10: biggest natural disasters of all times. Retrieved from http://ibnlive.in.com/photogallery/3614-1.html
9. Yangtze River peaks in China. (2011). The History Channel website. Retrieved 7:54, May 30, 2011, from http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/yangtze-river-peaks-in-china.
10. Harnsberger, S. (2011). Opportunities. Retrieved from http://www.chinabusinessreview.com/public/0509/opportunities.html
11. NOAA, Initials. (1999, December 13). Noaa's top global weather, water and climate events of the 20th century. Retrieved from http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories/s334b.htm
12. Epic Disasters Editor, . (2009, January). The world’s worst floods by death toll. Retrieved from http://www.epicdisasters.com/index.php/site/comments/the_worlds_worst_floods_by_death_toll/
13. Huang He floods. (2011). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1483621/Huang-He-floods
14. TopTenz, . (2011). Top 10 deadliest natural disasters. Retrieved from http://www.toptenz.net/top-10-deadliest-natural-disasters.php
15. Wikipedia, . (2011). 1931 China Floods. Wikipedia. Retrieved May 30, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1931_China_floods
16. Harnsberger, S. (2007, September 25). The great floods of 1931 at gaoyou. Retrieved from http://aboutgaoyou.com/history/floods/the_floods.aspx
17. Reynolds, D.P. (2007). Lindbergh's stay in nanking, september 1931. Retrieved from http://www.charleslindbergh.com/history/china.asp Size Importance It is the single greatest water-related disaster worldwide in the last 100 years (Harnsberger, 2011), and it is generally considered to be the deadliest natural disaster ever recorded. (Hongtu Real Estate Development Company, 2010) The Causes Because it was a series of floods, there are multiple causes. Weather conditions such as (Harnsberger, 2007) a long drought preceding the flood from 1928 to 1930 (NOAA, 1999) heavy winter snowstorms in Central China that were followed by spring thaw/defrost with heavy rains (Hongtu Real Estate Development Company, 2010) an increase of rain that continued from spring into July and August of 1931 (Hongtu Real Estate Development Company, 2010) three big summer storms (Harnsberger, 2011) 7 cyclones hit the area (Hongtu Real Estate Development Company, 2010) that caused river levels to increase, which lead to the overflowing of rivers causing the series of floods. (Hongtu Real Estate Development Company, 2010) 800 Dikes broke across China. (Harnsberger, 2007) In Gaoyou, six Grand Canal dikes burst (Harnsberger, 2011) The Yangtze dams were demolished (Conklin, 2000), and the Yangtze dikes gave way. (Hays, 2008) monsoon rains (Conklin, 2000) (NASA/Earth Observatory/Terra satellite, 2010) The Effects (Lindbergh & Lindbergh, 1931) (Lindbergh & Lindbergh, 1931) (Lindbergh & Lindbergh, 1931) (Lindbergh & Lindbergh, 1931) (Lindbergh & Lindbergh, 1931) (Harnsberger, 2007) (Lindbergh & Lindbergh, 1931) (Lindbergh & Lindbergh, 1931) Nanjing, the capital of the time, was isolated by the flooding of the Yangtze and Huai rivers. (The Kosmix Staff, 2011) It was an island in a massive flood zone. (Wikipedia, 2011) Gaoyou was destroyed. In 1931, the city endured the single worse levee breaks of the 20th century's worst flood. Like in New Orleans with Hurricane Katrina, it was the levee breaks, not the typhoon that did the damage. (The Kosmix Staff, 2011) 5000 miles of levees were in need of repair (China Daily, 2006) The current season’s rice and the next winter’s wheat crop were a complete loss, resulting in massive starvation. (Harnsberger, 2007) Unprecedented and unimaginable carnage and misery (Harnsberger, 2007) Even so, this disaster is something that history has forgotten, until recent times. The Great Depression, Japan's invasion of China, and the civil war in China overshadowed the event. (China Daily, 2006) Cannibalism and infanticide occurred (Wikipedia, 2011) Disease was rampant with untold numbers of people affected by cholera, (The Kosmix Staff, 2011) typhoid, and dysentery. (The History Channel website, 2011) It was reported that men sold their wives and daughters for food and money. (The Kosmix Staff, 2011) Human Fatalities/Injuries Nobody knows exactly how many Chinese died. (China Daily, 2006) destruction of the livelihood of over 50 million people (China Daily, 2006) The human fatalities are estimated from 3.7 million to 4 million (Hongtu Real Estate Development Company, 2010), due to disease, starvation or drowning. (NOAA, 1999) One villager said, "The corpses were put in coffins but they could not be buried. They were just stacked up.” (Hays, 2008) Dead bodies were everywhere, like floating fish passing in the river. (Hays, 2008) (IBN Live, 2011) (Hongtu Real Estate Development Company, 2010) (Harnsberger, 2005) Violence and disorder. (China Daily, 2006) 80 Million were left homeless. (The Kosmix Staff, 2011) 10,000 square miles of the Jiangsu plain were flooded 10-12 feet deep for six months (Harnsberger, 2011) Damage Inestimable due to poor record keeping and the overshadowing of this event by more "important" events. (Wikipedia, 2011) Entire villages and huge amounts of agriculture and farmland were washed away. (Wikipedia, 2011) Nanjing remained underwater for weeks. (Conklin, 2000) Mitigation Before: Very little -
Poorly built or much too small dams that held back water in the Yangzte, Yellow, and Huai rivers. (TopTenz, 2011)
Dikes. (NOVA, 1997)
Flood-control measures were not followed closely. With much of the area's resources devoted to civil war at the time, the rivers were neglected. (The History Channel Website, 2011) During: None for the most part. Some richer people escaped by boats though. (Conklin, 2000) After:
In the Republic Era (1930s - 1940s) - The "Huai river conservancy Commission". However, due to the Second Sino-Japanese war, the Chinese Civil War and the lack of funding, the government only emphasized on small dams along the Yangzte river. (Hongtu Real Estate Development Company, 2010)
Reconstruction of dikes and the Grand Canal levee project by Harnsbergers and Lindberghs (China Daily, 2006)
1953, Mao Zedong announced the Three Gorges Dam project which was to help control any future flooding problems. However, it was not until the 1980s that the project even began due to internal problems in the Chinese government. Finally, the dam project was completed in 2009. (the Kosmix Staff, 2011)
Dams built by the Communist government. (Lindbergh & Lindbergh, 1931) (Lindbergh & Lindbergh, 1931) (Lindbergh & Lindbergh, 1931) (Lindbergh & Lindbergh, 1931) (Lindbergh & Lindbergh, 1931) (Lindbergh & Lindbergh, 1931) (Lindbergh & Lindbergh, 1931)
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