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Chi Hoon kim

on 1 April 2013

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Chi Hoon Kim
Maychell Campbell
YeJin Shim Vestibular and Kinesthetic Senses Vestibular Sense
Structures of the inner ear that registers the orientation of the head Related to balance and equilibrium of our body
Involves areas of the nervous system that control motor movement and adjust muscle activity Ability to perceive extent, direction, or weight of movement Involves being aware of position, weight, tension and body movement.
Grants the ability to feel movements throughout the limbs and the body.
Involves physical activity such as dance, gymnastics, or any other athletic sport. Transduction Where/How transduction
takes place with each sense Vibrations are transduced into fluid waves Movements of the basilar membrane
Hair cell depolarization and hyper-polarization
Patterns of action potential firing the afferent nerve Kinesthetic
Knowing where your body parts are in space.
Such a person may not be able to walk down the stairs without looking to see where to put his feet. HOW DO THEY WORK? Activating a receptor of proprioceptory senses in the periphery.
The information it receives comes from the neurons located in the inner ear. Allows us to stand upright, maintain balance, and move through space by means of its direct connection to the brain.
Coordinates information from all of the vestibular organs.

Include the inner ear, the eyes, the muscles and joints, the fingertips, the palms of the hands, the soles of the feet, pressers of the jaw, and lastly; gravity receptors Possible disorders of vestibular and kinesthetic senses. 1. Acoustic Neuroma

A serious but is not cancerous tumor
Develops on the sheath of inner ear's vestibulo-cochlear nerve
Sends both balance and sound information to brain.  2. Age-related Dizziness and Imbalance

The most common cause of dizziness in almost 50% of older people. 3. Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct Syndrome (EVAS)

An enlargement of the endolymphatic duct and sac
Help maintain the volume and composition of endolymph for transmitting hearing and nerve signals to the brain. 4. Otosclerosis
The irregular growth of bone of the inner ear.
Bone prevents ear structures from working properly
Causes different types of hearing loss
Feel dizziness and balance problems. 5. Tinnitus
Not vestibular disorder by itself but caused with other types of vestibular disorders.
Abnormal noise or sound occurred in one or both ears or in the head
Ringing, hissing, whistling, buzzing, or clicking sound. 6. Cholesteatoma

A skin growth caused by repeated infection abnormally in the middle ear behind the eardrum
Hearing loss, dizziness, and facial muscle paralysis
A possibility of growth in size and destroy the surrounding bones of the middle ear Gate –Control Theory Of Pain In 1962 Ronald Melzack and Patrick Wall discovered a gating mechanism within the spinal cord into the brain.

It is the thought that physical pain is not a result of pain receptor neurons but is by the interaction of different neurons

There are two types of spinal cord fibers

Small nerve fibers or pain receptors that allow pain to pass through.

There are also large nerve fibers that block pain.

The spinal cord contains neurological gates that either block pain signals or let them pass signals to the brain.

When an inhibitory neuron blocks the projection neuron the gate is closed.

When there are more small fibers or only small fibers they activate the inhibitory neuron so that the projection neuron is able to send a signal to the brain making the gate open. Vestibular Transduction Auditory Transduction Sense
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