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Marketing Tactics for Libraries

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Beth D

on 16 March 2015

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Transcript of Marketing Tactics for Libraries

Halloween Open House at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga Library (Cowden & Tekulve, 2014) promoting research appointments and library workshops by means of:
Table-top poster with the tagline "Jumpstart Your Brain: Sign Up for a Research Appointment“, possibility to sign up for an appointment
A handbill with the tagline "Feed Your Brain: Attend Library Workshops" on one side and the list of upcoming workshop dates on the reverse.
Reasons of the success of the open house:
Aimed at a specific category of users (undergraduates)
The brain theme helped articulate students learning needs
Appropriate timing – Halloween – just when the students are about to begin research for their term projects
Marketing Tactics for
Libraries

References
XXXX
Andersen, D., & Andersen, D. (2014). Marketing public libraries: Knowing where the money comes from and who pays the bills. Journal Of The Library Administration & Management Section, 10(2), 7-20.
Anthony, K. (2010). Reconnecting the Disconnects: Library Outreach to Faculty as Addressed in the Literature. College & Undergraduate Libraries, 17(1), 79-92.
Busby, Christine (2013) Marketing from the inside out: How we marketed to staff to spread the word to our members. Paper presented at: IFLA WLIC 2013 - Singapore - Future Libraries: Infinite Possibilities in Session 86 - Management and Marketing.
Carrigan, D. (2014).Public libraries and marketing. Kentucky Libraries, 78(3), 6-9.
Carter, T. M., & Seaman, P. (2011). The management and support of outreach in academic libraries. Reference & User Services Quarterly, (2), 163
Cedar Rapids Public Library. (2012, April 13). “My library” – ARY campaign. [Video file]. Retrieved from: www.youtube.com/watch?v=x2Mhksr9be4
Cowden, C. & Tekulve, N. (2014). The Brain Campaign: Effective Marketing of Library Services during Special Events. Tennessee Libraries 64(2)
Cronin, K., & O'Brien, T. (2001). Practical low-cost marketing measures: The experience of Waterford Institute of Technology Libraries (English). New Library World, 110(1266-1267), 550-560.
Dempsey, K. (2009). The accidental library marketer. [electronic resource]. Medford, N.J. : Information Today, c2009.
Dennis, M. (2012). Outreach initiatives in academic libraries, 2009-2011. Reference Services Review, 40(3), 368-383.
Einasto, Olga (2013) Renewing the marketing strategy: from meeting user needs to values creation. Paper presented at: IFLA WLIC 2013 - Singapore - Future Libraries: Infinite Possibilities in Session 86 - Management and Marketing.
Evans, G., & Alire, C. A. (2013). Management basics for information professionals. Amer Library Assn.
Gall, D. (2010). Librarian like a rock star: Using your personal brand to promote your services and reach distant users. Journal Of Library Administration, 50(5/6), 628-637.
Garoufallou, E., Siatri, R., Zafeiriou, G., & Balampanidou, E. (0001). The use of marketing concepts in library services: a literature review (English). Library Review (Glasgow), 62(4-5), 312-334.
Germano, M. A. (2010). Narrative-based library marketing: Selling your library's value during tough economic times. Bottom Line: Managing Library Finances, 23(1), 5-17. doi:10.1108/08880451011049641
James-Gilboe, L. (2010). Raising the Library Profile to Fight Budget Challenges. Serials Librarian, 59(3/4), 360-369.
Jennings, E., & Tvaruzka, K. (2010). Quick and Dirty Library Promotions That Really Work. Journal Of Library Innovation, 1(2), 6-14.
Judith Broady‐Preston, Lucy Steel, (2002) "Employees, customers and internal marketing strategies in LIS", Library Management, Vol. 23 Iss: 8/9, pp.384 – 393
Judith Broady‐Preston, Lucy Steel, (2002) "Internal marketing strategies in LIS: a strategic management perspective", Library Management, Vol. 23 Iss: 6/7, pp.294 - 301
Kim, C. & Mauborgne, R. (2004). The Blue Oceans Strategy. Retrieved from: https://hbr.org/2004/10/blue-ocean-strategy/ar/1
Louise L. Rutherford, (2008) "Implementing social software in public libraries: An exploration of the issues confronting public library adopters of social software", Library Hi Tech, Vol. 26 Iss: 2, pp.184 – 200
McClelland, T. (2014). What Exactly Do You Do Here? Marketing-Related Jobs in Public and Academic Libraries. Journal Of Library Administration, 54(5), 347-367. doi:10.1080/01930826.2014.946736
Metz-Wiseman, M. & Rogers, S. (2007). Thinking outside the library box: The library communications managers. Serials Librarian. 53(3), 17-39.
Mi, J., & Nesta, F. (2001). Marketing library services to the Net Generation (English). Library Management, 27(6-7), 411-422.
Millet, M. S., & Chamberlain, C. (2007). Word-of-Mouth Marketing Using Peer Tutors. Serials Librarian, 53(3), 95-105.
Mundava, M. C., & Gray, L. (2008). Meeting Them Where They Are: Marketing to International Student Populations in U.S. Academic Libraries. Technical Services Quarterly, 25(3), 35.
Nelson, J. A. (2006). Marketing and Advocacy: Collaboration in Principle and Practice. Public Library Quarterly, 25(1/2), 117-135.
New York Public Library. (2011, February 22). The haunted library [Video file]. Retrieved from: www.youtube.com/watch?v=XOlfUA1xl34
Nunn, B. b., & Ruane, E. (2012). Marketing Gets Personal: Promoting Reference Staff to Reach Users. Journal Of Library Administration, 52(6/7), 571-580.
Paul James Harrison, Robin N. Shaw, (2004) "Intra‐organisational marketing culture and market orientation: a case study of the implementation of the marketing concept in a public library", Library Management, Vol. 25 Iss: 8/9, pp.391 - 398
Roy, L. (2002). Marketing in Public Libraries. Acquisitions Librarian, 14(28), 215.
Singh, R., & Ovsak, A. (2013). Library experience matters! Touchpoints to community engagement. Journal Of Library Administration, 53(5/6), 344-358.
Smith, D. A. (2011). Strategic Marketing of Library Resources and Services. College & Undergraduate Libraries, 18(4), 333-349.
Strittmatter, C. c. (2008). If you pour it, they will come: Hosting a cocktail reception to promote services to faculty. Public Services Quarterly, 4(3), 269-276.
Thorpe, A. a., & Bowman, H. (2013). Promoting discovery: Creating an in-depth library marketing campaign. Journal Of Library Administration, 53(2/3), 100-121.
Vilelle, L. (2006). The Best Is Yet to Come: Laying a Foundation for Marketing. Technical Services Quarterly, 24(2), 9-26.
LIS 504 Group Project Presentation
Submitted to: Jason Kaltenbacher
Submitted by:
Althea Wheeler
Beth Dawson
Sehdeep Kaur
Victor Taki
Yang Wu
External Public Library Marketing
Conclusion
The lack of effective external marketing can be a threat to ongoing support and sustainability of library performance.

In a survey done by Public Agenda, the results indicated that while the individuals reacted positively respecting their local libraries, the results from community leaders who were polled indicated that lack of marketing in public libraries were distinct shortcomings, and those who were most likely to be heard by local politicians were also those who were least aware of threats to library funding (Nelson, 2006).
An initial step that is recommended is to not only consider patrons needs, wants, and expectations, but also their values (Einasto, 2013). By identifying patron values through communication with different user groups library marketing can go beyond the traditional four P’s of marketing--product, price, promotion and place (Germano, 2010)--and extend to other P’s relevant to community organizations, such as “Problems in society, which we can help to solve, Purpose of the project, Рotential investors, Рartnerships” (Einasto, 2013, p. 7). User values may include democracy, lifelong learning, neighborliness, technology and pride (Nelson, 2006).
Consider whether library programs and services can tie into larger city or community wide marketing efforts, or determine whether other organizations may want to co-sponsor marketing events with public libraries (Roy, 2002).
Consider creating promotional materials for the library in conjunction with library users (Roy, 2002). For example, the Springfield Massachusetts Library coordinated with students at a local vocational high school to create graphic images to print on bookmarks promoting the library (Roy, 2002).
Direct mailing, newsletters, and news releases to local newspapers and news channels can be good methods of external marketing (Roy, 2002). Try being creative with direct mailing; for example, a public library in Ohio mailed 300 valentines to housebound patrons as a marketing opportunity (Roy, 2002).
What, then, are options for effective external Public Library marketing?
See whether local public radio or television may be willing to feature short programs on topical library issues featuring a library spokesperson (Roy, 2002).
Consider hosting mixers or other networking events focusing on activities that show how supporting libraries is beneficial for business or other community stakeholders (Roy, 2002).
Utilize digital marketing opportunities. The web allows one to link library services and marketing opportunities throughout multiple websites (Anderson and Anderson, 2014).
Consider using different social media options, including blogs, Twitter, Flickr, and Facebook as digital marketing possibilities.
Try creating Youtube videos to help market your library. See for example the New York Public Library “haunted” library video (New York Public Library, 2011, February 22), or the Cedar Rapids Public Library “ARY” campaign (Cedar Rapids Public Library, 2012, April 13).
Be creative with your marketing options—word of mouth may be one of the best marketing tools for public libraries (Roy, 2002)!
The haunted library
"My Library" -ARY Campaign
Example of The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga Library holding an Open House during the Halloween

A Concrete Example

Marketing academic library services to users "within the library walls," who are increasingly targeted by alternative information gateways and search engines (Nunn & Ruane, 2012; Metz-Wiseman & Rogers, 2007)
The goals of inside marketing:
Sustain and strengthen the customer loyalty of the regular visitors of the library
Change the way in which the existing users use the library in other to render it more indispensable to them
Library marketing and the choice between “red ocean” and “blue ocean” strategy (Kim & Mauborgne, 2004)
"Red Ocean," or competing for a share of an existing market
"Blue Ocean," or rendering the competition irrelevant by offering a unique product and getting the customer interested in it
Why Marketing Inside Academic Libraries?

An analysis of the needs of the students and faculty and the ability of the library to meet them
How existing users (students, faculty) are using the library?
How existing users want to use the library?
What new needs can students and faculty develop?
How can library marketing help them articulate those needs?
What is academic library’s unique product?
Academic libraries vs. the competition (Google, Wikipedia)
Academic library as information provider or academic library as knowledge organization?
Disconnect between student searching and learning styles and traditional library subject guides (Mi & Nesta, 2006) can be corrected by means of promoting one-on-one research appointments and library workshops
Product or People: What is the First “P” in Academic Libraries Marketing?
Marketing tatics for Academic
Libraries' internal customers



1. Please discuss or describe a library marketing event that made a positive impact on you.
2. Have you ever been involved in a library marketing endeavor? Was it overall a positive or negative experience?
3. What sort of incentives might make it more appealing for individuals to volunteer their time to a marketing focus group?
4. What kind of marketing efforts are most effective to you as a library patron?
Next . . .
What Academic Libraries Are Doing to Market Themselves Outside of the Physical Library
Building close relations with faculty and educating them on library resources


Goals:
Turn faculty members into advocates of libraries, who can support efforts by academic libraries to gain more funding and introduce library resources and services to students (James-Gilboe, 2010, p.365-366; Strittmatter, 2008, p.270).).

Activities include:

Establishing summer reading programs for children of faculty members as a form of connecting with them (James-Gilboe, 366).
Organizing social events, such as cocktail receptions to introduce new academic faculty to librarians and make the library seem more welcoming to faculty members in general (Strittmatter, 2008, p.270).
Bringing services, such as reference support and information literacy instruction outside of physical libraries and into departments and classrooms (Anthony, 2010, p.85-89).
Selling these services as crucial to the success of individual faculty members (Anthony, 86).
Collaboration between librarians and faculty members in teaching and research (Anthony, 87-88).
Engagement with students to promote library resources and services

Some more creative approaches include:

Connecting with students on social media and using methods such as having contests on Facebook, giving students small prizes as a way of getting them to become social media followers of libraries (Jennings & Tvaruzka, 2010, p.2-6).
Organizing games nights and social events for students.
Web advertising, such as with flash commercials (James-Gilboe, p.366).
Unconventional promotional efforts: Ex. Giving out fortune cookies during student orientation, with messages specially created by library staff to familiarize new students with libraries and encourage them to visit (Jennings & Tvaruzka, 2010, p.6-8).
Educating TAs about library resources and having them pass the information to students (Millet, 2007, p.102-103).
Marketing a library brand and service story to distance learning students (Gall, 2010, p.7-9).
Encouraging international students to use library resources through liaison work with international student offices, ESL programs and creating special web tutorials for international students, in simpler English (Mundava & Gray, 2008, p.40-42).
Outward shift in the role of librarians and library services

Creation of outreach librarians, who are tasked with promoting and publicizing library resources and services to the larger campus community.
More use of marketing/outreach teams and committees (Dennis, 2012, p.377).
Increase in the number of liaison librarians, who "embed" themselves in departments and attend faculty meetings to promote library resources and bring services outside of the physical library.
Emphasis on understanding the academic cultures of departments and overcoming barriers to communication between librarians and faculty (Anthony, 80-85).
Issues and Challenges
Introduction to Marketing Tactics for Libraries
It always seems to come down to money! It is of vital importance to budget some money to support whatever marketing tactics the library wishes to implement.
Inclusion of a marketing budget does divert funds from operating, program or acquisition budgets in the short term, but benefits from a successful marketing strategy can result in increases to future budgets (long term gain).
There are a number of tools that library marketers can utilize to connect with target groups, but none are fail proof.
it can be difficult to get people to complete and submit surveys
focus groups can be labor intensive to administer
results can be conflicting, and therefore impossible to determine which direction should be pursued
"It has become perfectly clear that for libraries to survive, the provision of services should meet the requirements of current trends, respecting the identified and changing demands of a more challenging user" (Garoufallou et al, 2013, p.326).

Marketing "may assist librarians in dealing with a wide range of activities and tools that may assist librarians in dealing with a wide variety of issues in the current socio-economic context concerning their role, image and utilization (Garoufallou et al, 2013, p.326).
"Bushing (1995, p.1) pointed out that the basic reason that inhibits libraries from an efficient and effective marketing implementation, is librarian's failure to understand marketing theory and applications. Because they equate marketing with other related aspects, such as promotional activities, they fail to recognize marketing's basic processes and disagree upon the marketing concept, which focuses on the importance of satisfying customer needs" (Garoufallou et al, 2013, p.316-7)

Marketing is not only promotion!

The "selling" concept is "a taboo to many librarians, even though libraries, more now than ever, need to attract users and maximize the use of library services" (Garoufallou et al, 2013, p.326).

It is important to try to find out what local community members want and expect from their library, and include broader community involvement in your marketing efforts.
Joining efforts with other city-wide marketing campaigns and involving the community in designing promotional materials can be effective uses of the broader community context.
It is important to never disregard inexpensive or free marketing--local media and social media may allow for inexpensive and far reaching marketing opportunities.
Dempsey (2009) states, "True marketing is a process of asking people what they want, then asking people how well you did" (p.6).
A more in depth definition of marketing would be "taking steps to move goods from producers to consumers. It's determining what people want, delivering it, evaluating consumer satisfaction, and then periodically updating that whole process"(Dempsey, 2009, p.16-7).

Public relations, publicity, promotion, advertising, branding, and advocacy are all strategies that are a part of the marketing process .
Research to learn about people that use your library and it's services
Acknowledge or understand that you will find that the library has many different types of customers. These groupings will need to be treated separately (to aid in identifying ‘target market’)
Determine goals (both quantitative and qualitative) for your target market
focus on a single target market: ask for members of the group input on what they want included and excluded
Analyze this input to determine what services and products would meet stated input - determine what is being used currently to meet these expressed needs
Establish some means of evaluating if implemented changes are meeting patrons expectations
Promote the products and/or services in a manner that will engage the target market
implement the changes (products and/or services) as well as the evaluating tool developed earlier
Analyze the data collected from the evaluating tool: Were goals met? Are patrons expectations met?
‘Tweak’ your products, services, approaches, actions, or goals as necessary. Then go back to what ever step you need to improve and continue through the cycle again" (p. 15).
Next...

Publicizing library resources and services through programs, special events and promotions (Vilelle, 2006, p.12).

Increasing awareness and usage of library resources by non-traditional users, such as international and distance learning students.

Increasing communication with different user communities and building relationships between them and librarians.

Creating a positive, essential profile for the academic library.




Public Relations
and
Outreach
Marketing

Most libraries don't have dedicated staff for marketing. Even fewer have marketing committees (Carter & Seaman, 2011, p.165-166).
Staff assigned to marketing often don't have necessary skills, and inadequate effort has been made by libraries to provide them training or hire people with marketing skills (McClelland, 2014, p.347).
Many libraries don't have a clear mission statement on marketing. Nor do they incorporate marketing into their strategic planning.
Marketing is often done on an
ad hoc
basis rather than a larger, planned effort (Carter & Seaman, 2011, p. 166-168).
Next . . . .
In order to be successful, a library marketing campaign has to meet a number of requirements:
• It should be focused on specific audience rather than on all the users
• The timing should be appropriate, especially in the case of academic libraries, which operate within the cyclical time frame of the academic year
• The library marketing campaign will be more successful if it adopts a general theme expressed in attention-grabbing images and slogans

Marketing directed towards library staff in a
Public Library setting
James-Gilboe, L. (2010). Raising the Library Profile to Fight Budget Challenges. Serials Librarian, 59(3/4), 360-369.
Jennings, E., & Tvaruzka, K. (2010). Quick and Dirty Library Promotions That Really Work. Journal Of Library Innovation, 1(2), 6-14.
Kim, C. & Mauborgne, R. (2004). The Blue Oceans Strategy. Retrieved from: https://hbr.org/2004/10/blue-ocean-strategy/ar/1
Next...
"If libraries plan to compete with the explosion of alternate information outlets in the twenty-first century, marketing and outreach may need to be supported by more formalized structures, including thoughtfully articulated mission statements and dedicated budget lines" (Carter & Seaman, 2011, p.170)
Next...
Discussion
Marketing Inside Public Libraries
Goals
Meeting Existing Demand vs
Creating New Demand
“Companies must first sell to their employees before they can successfully sell to their customers” (Broady-Preston and Steel, 2002). They also relate to other studies by saying that internal marketing should be considered as a prerequisite for external marketing. Three main phases in the evolution of internal marketing are –
Strategic Marketing
Employee satisfaction
Customer Orientation
The library staff can be divided into four categories in terms of internal marketing –
Senior Managers and Board Members
Branch Managers
Professionals and Customer Service
Marketing Staff / HR

"The Cycle of True Marketing
(as per Dempsey, 2009)
Budget
Staffing and Commitment
How to target what your library users really want?
All about the books
Marketing for Senior level internal customers
Updating and keeping all the senior management, board members, branch managers in the "loop" is the key to marketing towards this set of users (Evans and Alire, 2013).

Some of the examples that can be followed are -
Conducting continuous face-to-face meetings
Presenting the "numbers"
Three factors that can contribute towards strong marketing towards internal staff are (Harrison and Shaw, 2004) -
Marketing culture
Marketing Orientation
Individual responsibility in an organization
To help increase user satisfaction some examples that can be followed are -
Introducing new and ever changing social media platforms to be implemented for patrons, which in turn affects staff as they will be helping future patrons any trouble shooting issues. (Rutherbford, 2008).
Marketing Intelligence can be applied for internal staff using the same concept by conducting in-house anonymous surveys (Evans and Alire, 2013).
Marketing for lower level (Professional) internal customers
A public library conducting workshops for staff to promote internal marketing
Marketing Inside Academic Libraries
Full transcript