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Unique Evolution of Music

Depicts the different styles and eras of music throughout history,and their correlation to historical and moral beliefs.
by

Eliza Isaac

on 29 November 2012

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Transcript of Unique Evolution of Music

An EXPLO ATION of one of mankind's most refined ART forms.... When did it ALL start? The origins of usic: Originally, preliterate cultures such as native aboriginal tribes performed varieties of sounds and tones which are classified as prehistoric music, which would have started in late geological history. It is very possible that the first musical instrument was voice, which can imitate and create a variety of sounds. Clapping hand and other body movement generating sound would have been the first percussion instruments, although such theories are purely speculative. Clapping hands. Vocal ability-perceived as the first human instrument Ancient Greek Music: Prehistoric music evolved to ancient music after literate culture used it to provoke emotion through lingual usage. Ancient Greek music is one of most well known forms of music,and the musical ideology an effect on such revolutionary philosophers as Pythagoras. The most common Ancient Greek instrument was the lyre. The lyre is a stringed instrument popularly known for its use in Greek classical antiquity and music. The hollow turtle shell applied as the body of the instrument in ancient Greece. Two arms extended from the sound-chest, and a crossbar was used to resonate the vibrations of the sound from the either 4, 7, or 10 strings (number depending on the ancient epoch and style). Music was the fundamental basis of ancient Greek life, and musicality was undoubtedly woven into their heritage. Music accentuated piety in religious gatherings and rituals, funerals, marriage ceremonies, banquets, worshiping and other social festivities. Circa. 590-1400 A.D. Medieval Period The medieval period is history's longest and most ambiguous era of "classical" music. The Gregorian chant- a vocal cacophony of notes played in numerous different tones; creating a coherent melody-was derived from St. Gregory who was pope from 590-604.
The singing of the Gregorian chant is monophonic- meaning that there is only one melodic line of notation without accompaniment. The wavering and fluctuating tones of the melody are responsible for rendering it so serene and pious-sounding; sculpting the languorous melody. Notation: The first attempts at notation were created in the 900s. Albeit, for centuries, notation solely indicated the pitch or tone of the note to be sung. The beginnings of actual indications of rhythm through notation originated in the 12th and 13th centuries. * The actual composers of the melodic Gregorian chants is unknown- they are regarded as folk music whose melodies probably changed due to being passed from generation to generation. Ancient Music:The roots of ancient Greece Polyphonic music: Music composed of two or more melodies, played simultaneously, and arranged by the composer to create an appeasing and/or serene melody. This form of composition and melody was not recorded until the 11th century, and was unlike chant in form and sound. * Women were not allowed to sing in church, nor were children. *The sound was thin and unchanging, with a lack of richness and texture; not very expressive. * The melody had brief intervals between notes, and lacked chords or chord progressions. The melody was also modal, lacked many intricacies, and had little contour. ....... In European countries, the medieval era boasted many ostentatiously lavish churches, and religion+holiness were the main virtues forming the basis of medieval life. ..... .... .... ....... edieval Times 1400-1600 A.D. Renaissance Period The renaissance period was renowned for its impeccably-proportioned artwork, as well as for its musical progression. This painting is reflective of the style of artwork, color tones, and is demonstrative of the styles of tunics and clothes commonly worn in this time period. Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (c.1525-1594) was considered one of the most prominent and influential composers of the Renaissance period, and wrote prodigious amounts of fine music. In the 1500s, it was suggested that sacred music should eloquently and clearly reflect the meaning of the holy words in order to emotionally impact listeners, and move them to piety. Individualism and expressive musical composition were valued in a way that transcended the appreciation of the era's Medieval predecessors showed to such ideals. Secular music, although still less popular than religious music, became increasingly sophisticated, modernized, and melodically harmonic/appealing. Vast instrumental progression was underway, and new instruments were being invented, such as two keyboard instruments; the clavichord and the virginal. Such emphasis on artistic and religious expression sculpted many of the idylls that the new Renaissance era has been acclaimed for. The music from the Renaissance period was commonly performed in masses (sacred form of music utilized in religious gatherings reflecting the religion of Catholicism), and motets (form of sacred music separate from masses, and accompanied instrumentally). Mass Motet The Lute Clavichord Virginal Keyboard Instruments (similar to harpsichord) The lute is a string-plucking European instrument with a long neck extending from its deep, round back. The lute was a commonly-played instrument from the medieval era to the late Baroque era, and was controversially the most popular instrument for the playing of secular music in the Renaissance. Traditionally, the lute is an accompanying instrument, complementing vocal performances-structuring the harmony of the musical piece. ndividualism Expressive artistic and musical license was highly valued. Although secular music was rapidly progressing into greater vocal and instrumental sophistication, sacred music still remained the predominant form of musical presentation throughout the Renaissance period. In contrast to the thin Medieval polyphony, Renaissance polyphony was luscious, auriferous, and sonorous. The era between the early to late 1500s was christened the "Golden age of Polyphony". Harmonic sense was introduced, with harmonies stemming from, and interacting with, the melody. Imitation-where one melodic line continues or imitates an identical melodic theme to its precedent line- became an idealistic polyphonic technique. Imitation was used by composers to give complex and potentially befuddling pieces a foundation and rational musical structure to listeners. The art of polyphony was being increasingly perfected throughout the Renaissance period. Polyphony-A History Josquin Des Prez was a Renaissance composer renowned for his ground-breaking polyphonic and harmonious compositions, marking the commencement of the "Golden Age of Polyphony". (c.1440-1521). .......... ........... ....... 1600-1750 Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) is still revered as one of the finest composers of all time. Bach, a German composer, created a multitude of masterful musical masterpieces . Bach was the ingenious inventor of the fugue- an intricate melodious form of the modern-day round/canon where one person/hand/group begins playing an instrument or singing, and continues to sing/play while another person/hand/group begins to sing the same piece. Bach remains the ultimate master of the fugue, surpassing even Mozart's formidable skills in that strand of composition. The Fugue in g minor by Bach on the organ. he Four Seasons was Vivaldi's greatest masterpiece, and a ubiquitously adored anthem to the spellbinding and transfixing power of music; concerti in particular. Composed in 1723, the Four Seasons is one of the most popular sets of concertos in the Baroque era. It is structured with four concertos-each one evoking emotions associated with a season. For example, winter is flecked with delicate pizzacatos connoting gently falling snow. Summer is embellished with lackadaisical sounds-such as the shuddering snore of a dog, during the "dog days" of summer- and there is a tempestuous "storm" in its final movement. Spring is a spritely concerto-lighthearted and blithe- that must be expertly played with an effortless instrumental gait. Autumn's second movement has a fragile, soft component that reminds one of the balletic swirls of falling leaves, flaming with autumnal colour and zest. Antonio Vivaldi was an Italian Baroque composer, still acclaimed musical composer and benefactor of the world's finest music ever composed. Four Seasons The harpsichord functioned as a keyboard instrument, where sound was produced by the plucking of an internal string as each key was pressed down. Therefore a detached, brusque sound was readily created. The harpsichord enjoyed immense popularity throughout the Renaissance and (particularily) the Baroque eras, until the invention of the pianoforte in the late eighteenth century. The pianoforte is the equivalent to the modern-day piano- a keyboard instrument with a variety of tones and potential dynamics, with great scope for expressiveness and virtuosic playing. Originally the piano was named the "pianoforte"-illuminating both of its dynamic extremes- soft (piano), and loud (forte). Later, for simplicity, it was shortened to piano. Throughout the Baroque era, the style of music evolved from the Renaissance sound, to tonal music-which is consistently heard in classical music today. Tonality is derived from a system of pitch based on a key tonic (or center). The tonic is the first or central note in a scale, and is the note that the key of the music represents. The tonic uses different tones or pitches from major and minor scales, and is often the first and last note of a piece; reflecting the piece's key signature. The word "Baroque"actually means "ugly, misshapen sea pearl. In that era, lumpy, imperfect and ridged sea pearls were the height of elitist fashion. The Baroque era was also noted for being very ornamental and lavish. Excessively lavish style and clear distinction of social classes (rich and poor). Ornamental clothes, architecture, furniture and accessories. In the Baroque period, the songs were extremely long (2-3 HOURS), and there was continuous sound throughout; there were not many rests or pauses. As aforementioned, the harpsichord was an uproariously popular instrument. As the predecessor to the pianoforte, it was even more popular than the pipe organ; which was less manageable due to its colossal size which could not fit into most houses. There was a sole mood in the music; for instance, if a piece began brightly and jubilantly, that mood would remain through the duration. Also, the rhythm was commonly repeated multiple times throughout a piece. The dynamics were "terraced"-meaning that they would change abruptly rather than subtly, as they do in more modernized musical compositions. One of the Baroque period's principal characterizations was its polyphonic texture- consisting of pieces with two or more independent melodies played simultaneously. Baroque music is also recognized for its counterpoint-which is basically voices that are harmonically dependent, but independent in melody and rhythm. So, they may sound different when played separately, when played together they are harmoniously synchronized (have good harmony). Religion continued to be a centrifugal factor of Baroque music and lifestyle throughout this era. Much of the music, artwork and composers was reflective of the Christian values (the most common religious grouping in Europe at the time) and its moral system. Bach, who composed music solely for the church and was devoted, God-fearing and ecclesiastic throughout his life, was deeply religious partly because he was petrified of his own mortality, and was concerned as to what lurked after death. Prudently, he strove to appease the God his entire life, in order to prevent a painful death and condamnation. H o w T o S a y T h e R o s a r y Instructions: Religion retained its sacred worshiping from composers and people alike throughout the Baroque era. This painting is reflective of the lavish style of clothes worn in the Baroque era. The extravagantly wide hoop-skirts, and minuscule waists were very popular in this period; along with poufed hair piled high on the head in an elegant bun, or curled in ringlets. Wealthy men would commonly wear white curled wigs in order to appear dignified and gentrified. Hoop Skirt Tiny Waist Christianity, and Catholicism in particular had profound roots in the history of Europe: notably in the music composed (hymns and psalms, as well as other religiously-inspired music), and in the era's architecture (ancient and grandiloquent churches and cathedrals. The holy cross symbolized God's eternal love and sacrifice made on the pedestal of sympathy for humanity. I personally interpret this painting as expressing the wide spectrum of emotion and dynamic that musical immersion allows, and how, although the Baroque period was restrictive and musically rigid, expressiveness was beginning to evolve and find its roots in society. The flaming sun in this painting evokes fiery, booming dynamics, while the blue skin of the musician provokes images of coolness and blasé; softer dynamics. Harpsichord Solo with Orchestra: Brandenburg Concerto no. 5: The pipe organ was a commonly used Baroque instrument, but its popularity never matched that of the less cumbersome, manageable harpsichord. Teach a specified number of students privately (at your house) for a certain fee. 1. 2. Work composing religious chants or psalms whether vocal or instrumental, for the church's masses and events. Working for the church was very restrictive however, with enumerable pedantic regulations and superstitions about how pieces should be structured, and notes that could or could not be played. For example, a sequence of notes insidiously named the "Devil's Tone" was forbidden to be played, since it was believed that it would summon the Devil. 3.Work in the court/private concert hall/palaces of rich patronds; this was the most lucrative option, as working and composing pieces at the palaces of rich people was especially prestigious. *As a musician A prototypical medieval village, generally had a bustling and vivacious marketplace, as well as an often oppressive social hierarchy or caste system. This societal period bore a stark contrast from the extravagant indulgence of royals and wealthy counts to paupers and other impoverished cerfs. Ornamentation was often used in baroque music to accentuate the delicacy of certain notes. Musical flourishes-which consisted of a sequence of rapid notes emphasizing the prominence of the central note. This technique was used to add to the panache and flavour of musical pieces, while accenting their subtleties. The widespread use of general instruments also declined, as a greater focus and dependance was placed upon the paradigmatic harpsichord. Music Teacher Church Palace/Private Concert hall Athena was the divine goddess of sagacity, miliary victory, and household crafts. She is the patron goddess of Athens-the capital of Greece. According to Greek mythology, her parents were the great god Zeus and a nymph named Metis. Athena is often depicted in long robes, displaying a shield symbolizing her military tactics and tenacity,also accompanioed occasionally by an owl to symbolize her wisdom and intellect. *Music Styles, European culture and varying techniques from the Classical Period. 1750-1830 There were many ingenious and highly gifted composers who lived and worked during this time period. The most famed composers, whose music has transcended the test of time, are Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, and Franz Shubert. There is much emphasis on Viennese classicism and music during this period, and Vienna gained much historical enrichment in the field of music, since Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven and Antonio Salieri (another notable composer who was a debatable rival of Mozart's, and whose music is less recognized in contemporary time) lived and worked there. Franz Schubert was born in Alsergrund Vienna. Mozart's legendary Rondo Alla Turca on piano. The pianoforte-an internationally renowned instrument that originated primarily in the Classical period. The pianoforte was derived from the Baroque Harpsichord, and shortened to the modern name of the "Piano" after time. ... ............ .. .. .............. ... .. ............ ............................ ........... ........................... The Classical Period commenced during the middle of the 18th century (1700s). The architecture, artwork, music and culture sought to emulate the Classicism and Classical antiquity of ancient societies such as Ancient Greece. Clear, attenuated music grew more popular; the layered and intricate polyphonic sequences of the Baroque era were replaced with homophonic musical compositions. Homophony describes a piece with a distinct melody, and insubordinate, softer, harmony to complement the melody's tone and notes. Orchestral Advancement: Orchestral music and literature was being performed to broader and more widespread audiences.
Orchestras were increasing in size, and gained a more vivid colour/texture as more instruments such as oboes, bassoons, clarinets and flutes created a more versatile instrumental sound. ORCHESTRA: Symphony Many instruments were present in orchestral compositions throughout the classical period (violin, flute, clarinet, cello, etc.) but others were added in more contemporary times (such as the drums). Music continued to gain exponentional popularity in European and Western culture, and was a widely adored and popular form of both secular (banquets, opera houses, balls) and religious (churches, certain operas, etc.) entertainment. O Beethoven's 9th symphony, 4th movement part 2. Performed by Andrews University's choral group and orchestra. FUN FACT!! :) Beethoven used exactly 60 beans when making a scrumptious cup of coffee. Joseph Haydn owned a brilliant parrot that learned the opening lines of an Austrian hymn. Beethoven's hair and attire was in a continual state of disarray, and he paid little heed to his general hygiene and appearance. Rococo...... Rococo's carefree and lyrical style bedazzled audiences with its revolutionary grace and delicacy. German Rococo lavish interior design. Classical music evolved seamlessly to develop distinctive characteristics of its own. For example, the music began to acquire a more textured and rich tone. Also, the "mood" or "themes" of the music had the liberty of fluctuating- therefore creating a stark contrast of emotions and musical depth. Many movements of concertos, or themes in pieces had a varying range of sentimentality, as musical masters-especially Beethoven- were able to create a wide spectrum of emotion, but still bind it together with musical unity so that it appeared to be musically rational instead of scattered. The clarinet became increasingly popular, and was added to the orchestra during the Classical period. "Music expresses.......... "......that which cannot be put into words......" "......but that which cannot remain SILENT!" -Victor Hugo In the Classical period, dynamics were expressive and drastically contrasting. Composers generally preferred gradual shades of dynamics, in order to smoothly alter the sound intensity. Thus, dynamics such as crescendo (gradually get louder) and decrescendo (gradually get softer), were used in compositions much more frequently. The new dynamic advancements and artistic licenses that the budding composers allowed distinguished the Classical period as, while still very structured and precise, more lighthearted and emotional than the rigidity that previous musical eras (Baroque, etc.) permitted. 1756-1791 R.I.P. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
1756-1791 1770-1897 Ludwig Van Beethoven Haydn: 1732-1809 Haydn was born in the minuscule but quaint village of Rohrau; situated in lower Austria. Joseph Vienna was the musically-acclaimed city in which Joseph Haydn completed many of his masterpieces, and where he passed away on May 31st, 1809. 1797-1828 ............... ... ............... ... .............. Franz Schubert Joseph Haydn`s 72nd Opera, no.1, fourth movement: Unfortunately, and to the great chagrin of many composers and performers, Italian Opera began a gradual deterioration throughout the Classical era, with its solemn dramatism evolving into an unaesthetic and artificial shadow of its former self. Eventually however, ``comic opera`` was being refined and performed. This often lackadaisical and much more lighthearted form of opera was starkly contrasting the former melodramatic solemnity of opera, and was popular mainly amongst those who had favoured opera`s reform into lighter subject manner and musical creations. `` `` French Revolution: Insert head here. The French Revolution commenced in 1789, and was based upon the budding philosophy of equality, rights and opportunities for all members of society. Rebels believed in a just republic with egalitarian views and principles, instead of the overbearing hierarchy and monarchy that the impoverished citizens of France had been subjected to. The cost of wars and naval battles had severely drained France's financial economy, and poor harvests had left the common peasants deprived and starving. Meanwhile, members of the royal court devoured rich meals, wore sumptuous clothes, and held uproariously extravagant balls and banquets every night; seemingly indifferent to the rights of the less fortunate. The outrage of those in France grew, as well as public protests and stormings demonstrating extreme hostility toward the reigning Queen of France- Marie-Antoinette-who was notorious for her irresponsible spending, indulgences in the capricious fashion trends of France, and gambling. Views on the "Enlightenment" and abolishment of seigneurial rulers and nobility spread like wild fire, and revolutionaries and rebels began to violently revolt by attacking important edifices such as the royal castle, as well as storming and releasing prisoners from the Bastille prison. A republic was declared in 1792, and the rebels continued decapitating members of the nobility with an ingenious new invention called the Guillotine that consisted of a blade dropping on the victim's braced neck, efficiently slicing off their head. Eventually, Marie-Antoinette, and her husband, King Louis the sixteenth were executed. In 1793, the reign of terror began, culminating with the power of the Jacobins and other radical rebels who executed thousands of convicted "traitors". The republic remained for a brief period of time, until Napolean Bonaparte restored Monarchy in France. During the reign of terror, after a republic was established in France, traitors and members of the elite french nobility were slaughtered relentlessly. Between 16,000 and 40,000 people were tried and convicted for various crimes, by the vehement former-rebels and new leaders of France. The monarchy had indubitably collapsed for a period of time. "The last, and most infamous Queen of France" Marie-Antoinette was famed for her extravant demeanor, and insatiable desire for gaudy jewels and decadent gowns. These indulgences were one of the main factors contributing to her widespread detestation among the citizens of France, and her ultimate exectution by means of the guillotine. Marie Antoinette was born on November 2nd, 1755 in Vienna, Austria. Her mother Maria Theresa was the reigning Empress of Austria, and her father was Francis the first, the Holy Roman Emperor of Austria. Originally her name was Maria Antonia Josepha Joanna, and she was the fifteenth and largely overlooked child of the Austrian sovereigns. Antonia recieved a privileged education, primarily learning religious and social endeavors, rather than the regulated academia that her brothers had to endure. She was taught music on the clavichord and other instruments by the revered composer Gluck. Although her academic studies, sparse as they were, did not stimulate her, due to her laziness and lack of ambition, she was decidedly charming, and masterful at arts such as dance and poise. Childhood: Betrothal and Queenship: After the Seven years war terminated in 1763, Maria Theresa was determined to solidify a wavering alliance between Austria and France. Having had so many daughters, she adhered to the popular practice of betrothing her children to heirs of the throne in other countries. Therefore, she was able to fortify and create new alliances with countries possesing desirable naval and military equipment necessary for impending wars, which were incessantly being fought in this period. In 1765, the son of French king Louis Ferdinand the fifteenth passed away, and his 11-year-old son, Louis-Auguste became heir to the most coveted position in France-the throne. Maria Theresa lept upon this quintessential opportunity to ensure her daughter, Antonia, a regal title, and paintings of Antonia were immediately dispatched to France by the fastest courier. Within weeks, Antonia and Louis-Auguste were officially betrothed. Antonia, who was a comely and whimsically-beautiful young girl, with china-like features, bedazzling icy eyes, and thick blond curls, was immediately introduced to a French tutor, as well as new lessons on etiquette- a centrifugal part of the fastidious French court decorum- and dancing lessons. Antonia was an apt dancer, and had a charismatic manner- perfect qualities for a future female French Monarch, that distracted from her lack of literary and academic abilities. In May, 1770, Antonia departed for France with a vast cavalcade of horses, clothes and carriages, where she was assigned the new name of Marie-Antoinette. On May 16, 1770 her and Louis Auguste-the Dauphin of France- where united in holy matrimony, with an outrageously profligate ceremony. 14-year-old Marie-Antoinette and her slightly older new husband were decreed to live in the intricately-designed and utterly breath-taking Versailles palace. Marie-Antoinette often complained of the palace's rigorous ranking system, and the tribulations of their constant rules of etiquette that stipulated her freedom. However, she did assimilate to royal life, although her homesickness was evident in letters home to her mother. In 1774, King Louis the fifteenth died from an illness in his ripe old age, and Louis-Auguste became King Louis the sixteenth. Marie-Antoinette was promoted from Dauphine (female heir to the throne) to the Queen of France at the age of nineteen. Both Marie-Antoinette and her clumsy, introverted husband lacked the sagacity and prudence necessary to rule such an influential nation that was already riddled with debt, and their ignorance would eventually cost them their lives. Versailles: Salzburg Fortress, Austria King Louis XVI- The husband of Marie-Antoinette. Versailles was originally a quaint hunting lodge, built in 1624 by King Louis the 12th. Eventually, it was expanded by King Louis the 14th in 1669, becoming the astronomically luxurious palace it is known as today. Versailles remained the official home of the French royalty from 1682 until 1790, after the reign of Marie-Antoinette and Louis the 16th. Today, it still remains an enriching museum of French History, restored for public viewing. As Marie-Antoinette grew older, the pressing need for her to produce a male heir to the throne, despite her sexually reluctant husband, plagued her perpetually. Due in large part to her constant anxiety, and fatigued from the constant consternation of those around her, she delved more into the frivolties of court life. A deft gambler, radiant beauty and marvelous dancer, her extroverted personality thrived on opulent balls, ludicrous poufs (a popular French hair style consisting of hair piled atop one's head), and exquisite gowns. Still, as Marie-Antoinette spiraled into an extravagant desperation, her marriage remained unconsummated- which was grounds for exile or public disgrace in those days. Further elevating her humiliation was the birth of her brother-in-law Provence's baby son, which would be heir to the throne if Marie-Antoinette failed to produce a robust, healthy son. Fortunately, after a visit from her brother Joseph, the emperor of Austria who ruled alongside Maria Theresa, King Louis the sixteenth managed to consummate the marriage successfully and a baby girl was born a year later. Although a female daughter was not eligible to be a ruler, Marie-Antoinette was exuberant and named the baby Marie-Thérèse after her mother Maria Theresa. After a few years, Marie Antoinette produced the long-awaited royal Dauphin of France, named Louis-Joseph. She had two more children; a boy named Louis-Charles, who lived to be a healthy boy, and the only heir to the throne as his older brother died at a young age due to a disease which caused noxious fevers and curved and twisted his spine excruciatingly. The youngest child- Sophie Hélène Beatrix, died in infancy. Meanwhile, Marie Antoinette continued to spend prodigious quantities of money on her little countre palace-Petit Trianon, which was a gift to her from her husband. She also engaged in passionate love affair with Count Axel von Fersen- a dashing and suave Swedish diplomat and officer. As her extravagances grew, so did the antipathy that the French felt towards her and her family. An entanglement in a diamond scandal- where a criminal bought 647 garish diamonds under Marie-Antoinette's identity, and smuggled them to England to be sold. The common-folk refused to believe of Marie-Antoinette verified innocence, and blamed her more heartily for France's debt, called her Madame de Deficit. The harsh criticism only made her continue to spend money on a quaint Hameau she was having built to experience a tatse of "Village life". Eventually though, the French rebels stormed the Bastille prison on July 14, 1789, killing many guards and releasing the prisoners. On October 6, a crowd of 10,000 livid citizens assembled outside Versailles, and demanded that the royal family be brought to Paris, to live in the dreary Tuileries palace which lacked Versaille's effervescence. After several botched escape attempts, with the valiant assistance of Marie-Antoinette's lover Count Axel von Fersen, the family's fate was sealed incorrigibly. In the summer of 1792, a new revolutionary Jacobin radical named Maximilien de Robespierre insisted on the abdication of King Louis the sixteenth. King Louis, still weakly convinced that the outraged French citizens would come to their senses, and profess their undying love for the monarchy and its restoration, consented uncertainly.The National Convention subsequently obliterated the monarchy, and established a French Republic. Both Marie-Antoinette and King Louis the sixteenth, as well as their children and his sister Elisabeth, were imprisoned in the Tower. Marie-Antoinette would never return to her beloved Versailles again. Death: In January, 1793, the new French tribunal interrogated and judged King Louis the sixteenth, before sentencing him to death by means of the scurrilous guillotine. He was executed on January 21st, 1793. Later, the next October, Marie Antoinette was put on trial with false charges of theft, molestation of Louis-Charles, and treason (they thought she was an Austrian spy). Marie Antoinette was beheaded at the guillotine on October 1693. She was tranquil, courageous and serenely acceptant of her fate, saying that after all her suffering, her courage would not escape her before death. Marie-Antoinette's baby daughter Sophie Hélène Beatrix died in infancy, during the painting og this picture, hence her body was removed, leaving the cradle vacant. Marie-Thérèse was the only surviving member of the royal family, as her little brother Louis-Charles died in the Tower while still held in captivity. She was evacuated to Austria, and later married her cousin Antoine-Provence's son. The Hall of Mirrors-the most ostentatious, scintillating and beautiful area of Versailles that remains acclaimed for its elegant and grandiose beauty. Even though Marie-Antoinette's lavish and epicurean lifestyle is reminiscent of fairytale princesses, her life was no fairytale. She was forced at the tender and immature age of fourteen to marry a boy she barely even knew, much less loved, for her mother's selfish reasons. Her entire life's goal was to produce a healthy heir to the throne, and she lived in complete isolation and speculation at Versailles; insistently being subjected to the ludicrous laws of etiquette. She even gave birth in the prescence of members of the court. Privacy was a concept unbeknownst and irrevelvant to her lifestyle. She was a deeply flawed and impractical individual, but she was not as cruel and conniving as some perceived her to be. Her arrogance was very disturbing, but she never even said the phrase "let them eat cake"-it was a myth. She was certainly not fit to rule, and it was right to remove her from her position as Queen, but the death she endured was very brutal and merciless. Overall, she was alegendary figure, a terrible Queen, but not a heartless felon worthy of the death she suffered. (This entire paragraph is my opinion on the matter, and I completely respect differing opinions/views on this very controversial matter). "I was a Queen and you took away my crown; a wife and you killed my husband; a mother and you deprived me of my children. Only my blood remains: take it, but do not make me suffer long."
--Marie-Antoinette Classical Orchestra Structure: The melody in Classical music pieces was diatonic, precise and tuneful. It was an appeasing structure to hear, and it's symmetrical grace was effervescent and diaphonous.
The rhythm in this period of music was much more flexible and syncopations were introduced to enhance the intricacy of musical pieces. Dance rhythms were especially popular, and an accented first note, with ornamental flourishes after it indicated a steady beat.
The texture of Classical music was richly homophonic, but there were many stark contrasts in texture to augment the sentiment and/or theme of a particular piece.
The harmony of the Classical period generally complemented the melody masterfully. Diatonic and tonic-related harmonies served as a sub-part to accentuate the beauty or significance of a simple melody.
Emotionally, classical pieces were much more munificent than those of the Baroque and precedent periods, and composers such as Beethoven sought to evoke extreme sentiment and feeling from his dynamic, lustrously-created pieces. : Image from www.musiclearningcentre,com Ornate music sample: Ornate, felicitous and prestigious Classical banquets, with a dancing minuet accompaniment and many guests were relatively common in the Classical era; Shubert would compose music for posh meetings with other successful musicians, and play chamber music- which is derived from the playing of music in a chamber. He would play string-quartets with other musicians in the pristine and extremely prestiged drawing-rooms of Vienna. These legendary encounters and meetings were called Shubertiads, because all the attendants would play and sing his melodious music. Unfortunately, publishers were only intrigued by the works of performers, and would seldom publish composers like Shubert who did not often perform publicly. Hence, Shubert's profession was not very lucrative and he was not properly compensated for his incredible compositions during his lifetime. ................................ .................. In the romantic era, the style of the music so deftly played was evolving greatly from the pristine simplicity and icy structure of the Classical era. Romanticism-the concept from which the Romantic period was derived- consistes of liberty, soulful passion, the pursuit of love, and yearnful wist. These were all emotions explored in the Romantic era, the musicians had thought vulgar and/or unattainable through music in other eras. Instrumental symphonies were expanded ecponentially, and many new percussion instruments, as well as instruments such as the piccolo and harp were added to embellish the richness of the sound. Many composers such as Wagner and Mahler would create symphonic and operatic work using an immense orchestra; therefore creating a penetrating, lustrous sound. As Classical music and art focused on symmetrical lines, intricacy, meticulous control/detail and rigid musical/artistic structure, the Romantic era delved into more spontaneity, stranger and more disproportionate chord and note sequences, as well as impulsive sentiment. It was by far the most emotionally expressive and passionate era that Western music history has ever experienced. The vast variety of instruments and operatic functions used in the romantic era were capable of captivating the most profound sentiments of love and sorrow, and transcended the capacity of words used to illustrate such integral emotions. Yet, Of all the instruments, the violin is perceived to be one of the best instrumental mimics of the pure human voice. Impulsiveness, musical reaction and a proclivity to romantic and rich musicality defined and greatly accentuated the romantic period's exaggeratedly passionate style of music, art and culture. Operatic Human Voice. The Violin. As the symphonies, operas and orchestras expanded considerably in size, the music became more grandiose and rich in tonality. Musical colours were painted with the extraodinary brush of expressivity. The more emotion, the better was a common motto for the music of the Romantic era. In the romantic period, prolonged sections or movements of a certain Sonata or piece, kept one musical pattern intact, without abrupt pauses or stark structural contrasts- as was common in the music of the Classical era. The most musically profound and sentimental era of all! One of the most common and illustrative symphonic forms in the Romantic period are Symphonic Poems, where the music in the symphony creates veritable emotions, and unfolds into an actual story, where the notes and/or words parallel the storyline. In the romantic era, dynamics were pushed to their very limit. The use of more dramatic dynamics in pieces became increasingly popular, and dynamic extremes such as pianississimo (very, very soft), and fortississimo (very, very loud) were used much more commonly. In sonatas, and other large musical compositions, there was more emphasis on expressivity, lyricism and musical spontaneity than on unity, structure and musical order, which were all concepts very crucial to typical Classical music. Albeit, there was unity in the emotional themes and patterns that proceeded unbroken throughout movements. The music became poetic and had an even more intregral and distinguished melody. This period was very virtuosic, and Cadenzas, among other extremely enigmatic musical passages, were heightened in difficulty. Harmonic range, and the number of instruments played were all widened considerably. It was the age of excessive emotion, sound, and musical exploration. "Let them eat cake"= a myth. Traits of the Romantic Era: Commonly used dynamics (originally written in Italian): Virtuosic music was portrayed through ridiculously difficult and rapid Cadenzas, and other musical sequences. Performers, such as the legendary Niccolo Paganini, were able to play such section with lightning-fast precision, technique and intonation. Paganini-an Italian violinist, violist, guitarist and composer- was a phenomenal musician, and had such long, flexible fingers that he was able to span three octaves in one hand. Bohemian composer Dvorak's internationally acclaimed "Humoresque"- meaning humorous. Niccolo Paganini; Born: October 27, 1782 in Genoa, Italy
Died: May 27, 1840 in Nice, France. Acclaimed prodigy
and virtuoso....... In the romantic era, triadic sequences were used continuously and exploited in extremes. Also, chromatics were intensely exerted in pieces. Formal unity was disbanded, and the structure of pieces relied more heavily on the sentiment the composer or performer was attempting to convey. Perfect cadences and concise lenghths of pieces became less common, and aggrandizing tempos and long movements became more frequant. Due to such frequency in chromatics, actual tonality in the music began to decline. Romantic Period's Unique..... Throughout the Romantic period, expressionism, romanticism, and impressionism were all favoured, and utilized to create seemlessly blurred impressionistic art, effortless and dynamic and increasingly expressiveand fluid dance, as well as rich and penetrating music. Visual Art Dance (Ballet) Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikvsky was born on the 7th May,1840 in Votkinsk, situated in the Vyatka region of Russia. Pyotr was the second of six children (five male and one female). His father, Ilya Chaikovsky was of Ukrainian and Polish ancestry, while his mother Aleksandra Assier was of Russian and French ancestry. Tchaikovsky was introduced to piano at the age of five, and was stunned by the profundity and sentimental value of the music which he played and was able to create. Spellbound and enraptured, the youth continued to play throughout his youth, and it brought him solace when his mother died in 1854, from the dreaded Cholera. At this tragic time, he was sent to a rigidly-governed Russian boarding school, and later to St. Peterburg School of law, where he graduated five years later, in 1859. After having proved his piercing intellect and probing mind in Law School, Tchaikovsky worked at the Justice Department of the Russian Empire for a brief period of time, before leaving to study music with the prestigious mmusical teacher and mentor Anton Rubinstein from 1862 to 1865. In 1866, Tchaikovsky became a theory and harmony professor at the sprawling Moscow Conservatory, an remained at that dependable post for 12 years; until 1878. It was in the duration of that period that Tchaikovsky wrote the ballet "Swan Lake", the opera "Eugene Onegin", and the titillating violin Concerto no. 1. Thus, tchaikovsky embarked on the muscial journey of composing and creating the paradigmatic and enchanting music that made him one of the most famed and beloved composers of the Romantic Period. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikvsky 1840-1893 Swan Lake Ballet-written by Tchaikovsky. Moscow Conservatory of Music, where Tchaikovsky worked as a fastidious, yet engaging theory teacher for twelve years. The well-composed Tchaikovsky was never at a loss for romantic companionship, but unfortunately his personal life and trysts turn a more sinister turn when a student at the conservatory where he taught became infatuated with him. The young woman's name was Antonina Ivanova Milyukova, and she was insistently writing Tchaikovsky professions of her undying love for him through letters. Meanwhile, Tchaikovsky was contending with his own precarious homosexuality- a sexual orientation that was neither promoted nor tolerated in those days; in religious or societal terms. As Antonina became dangerously fervent, and threatened to take her own life if Tchaikovsky continued to resist her, he succumbed to her willful manipulation and married her. The union only lasted a few weeks, and left Tchaikovsky in a state of emotional turmoil. He even attempted suicide before the marriage was officially annuled in the September of 1877. Afterward, Tchaikovsky left for an excursion to Europe, hoping to restore some tranquility to his mind. He stayed with his brother Modest for a year in the quaint and picturesque village of Clarens on Lake Geneva, in Switzerland. There, he wrote the Violin Concerto in D, and the Symphony no. 4, which was dedicated to a matronly yet affluent Russian widow named Nadezdha Von Meck, who supported him and corresponded with him through copious letters for thirteen years (from 1877 to 1890). From approximately 1883-1893, Tchaikovsky created the ethereal symphonies no. 5 and no. 6, as well as the astronomically famous ballets "The Nutcracker" and "Sleeping Beauty". He also composed the operas "Spades" and "Iolanta". Finally, in the late 1880's, Tchaikovsky toured European countries such as Prague, Leipzig, London and Paris- the romance and cultural center of Europe. He also toured the United States of America, playing in Baltimore, New York City, and Philadelphia (among other places), and he performed in esteemed venues such as Carnegie Hall-where he conducted on it's opening night and inductment of prestige! In October, 1993, Tchaikovsky conducted his Symphony no. 6 in St. Petersburg, at a concert. The moment was bittersweet however, because a week later his death of cholera tainted this triumph in the eyes of the public. Tchaikovsky refused to boil his water before drinking it in order to annihilate deadly bacteria, but an impulsive moment of thirst led him to a glass of tap water-which indubitably caused his cholera and killed him. Tchaikovsky will remain one of the most monumental and influential Russian composers of all time. Tchaikovsky's Personal life, accomplishments, compositions and death. Sergei Rachmaninoff, an ingenious contemporary composer, was Tchaikovsky's protegé. Tchaikovsky met the youth in 1886, when he was only at the tender age of thirteen, but already a virtuosic musical prodigy. Tchaikovsky promoted Rachmaninoff's graduation opera- named "Aleko"- and supported its rise to popularity and induction into the Bolshoi theatre in Moscow. The Nutcracker! The conniving and vociferous Mouse King, who engages in an epic battle with the Nutcracker's army on Christmas night. The Sugar Plum Fairy A fiery troupe of flattering Traditional Spanish dancers add vim and vigour to spice up Tchaikovsky's ballet illuminating the Fantasy of the Nutcracker, and to enhance the ballet's imminent dramatic core. Clara, one of the main protagonists of the tale, who watches the Nutcracker battle and triumph over his nemesis- the evil and onerous Mouse King- who Clara had to ward off with a satin slipper. Fritz, Clara's robustious brother, cruelly stole it away from her after her Godfather Drosselmeyer gave it to her as a splendid Christmas gift of his own invention. Fritz played roughly with the delicate "toy", and wounded it, so that the Nutcracker had to be repaired by tying a silken white hankerchief around the afflicted area. The mischievous and rambunctious Fritz. The Snow Queen's Icy regime twinkles with wonderment, as she mesmerizes Clara with a cavalcade of balletic ice angels. A fantasy version of the Sugar Plum Fairy- the most gracious and seraphic character of all, and one of the most challenging techniques in the ballet performances. AlthoughTchaikovsky's native religion was Russian Orthodox-a common religion in Russia-he allegedly denounced Christianity, and never sincerely adopted his religion of origin. Fiesta! Main Information Source:www.imdb.com Christmas-which is when the Nutcracker is set, is a holy holiday celebrated across the world. The angelic figure-traditionally placed atop a glistening, verdant pine tree- symbolizes purity and the security of being guarded by someone who loves you unequivocally, and who is the very epitome of grace, mercy, divinity, and forgiveness. Christmas Tree with the traditional angel on top: Clara Fritz This is one version of the Nutcracker Ballet's Storyline: Act 1: On Christmas eve, the anticipatory Stahlbaum siblings-Clara and Fritz Stahlbaum- hastened to help prepare their house for the vibrant Christmas Eve festivities awaiting them. Their spacious house was decked with ornamental decorations, strung with streamers, scintillating bulbs and candles, and spiced with the crisp scent of mistletoe as well as the succulent aroma of a roasting feast. When their guests finally arrived, servants scurried around to help with their lustrous fur coats and other warm amenities, while preparing scrumptious hors d'oeuvres and rich eggnog beverages. Seraphic children and contented adults jostled around the main living room, as the party was livened with music and dance. Suddenly, the eery presence of a spectral man, draped in nebulous robes electrified the room. He frightened Fritz, but not Clara, who instantaneously recognized him as her beloved Godfather who was a brilliant toymaker, and whose inventive Christmas gifts were awaited all year. That particular year however, Godfather Drosselmeyer had fashioned a polished, handsome nutcracker out of wood, especially for his dainty niece Clara. All the other girls received stunning china-dolls with flowing curls, and the boys received an assortment of more masculine gifts (toy boats and soldiers, instruments, bugles, etc.). Nevertheless, Fritz is incensed with jealousy over Clara's unique gift, and snatches it; tossing around to the other boys who were eager to join in the mischief. Unfortunately, the nutcracker became slightly broken, and Godfather Drosselmeyer was forced to remedy the situation by tying a silk hankerchief around the nutcracker to brace his debilitating injury which was caused by the penurious behaviour of Clara's brother Fritz. In repentance, Fritz helps Clara fashion a makeshift bed near the Christmas Tree for the Nutcracker with whom she was so besotted. Inundated with the beseeching reaches of slumber, the children and their doting parents formed a farewell procession as the night grew nigh, bidding the Stahlbaums farewell, and expressing their sincere appreciation. Clara's family eventually left to go to sleep themselves, and she stayed behind to wish her cherished Nutcracker a good night one last time. However, she slipped into a deep slumber herself, and only awakened when the clock struck midnight. When she hastily awoke, Clara was overcome with a sense of panickiness. The room was in a disarray, and the objects around her appeared to be growing! She began to shrink until she was as minuscule as her Nutcracker. She noticed a large procession of malicious-looking mice, adorned with swords and weapons that began to circle the room, while the toy soldiers and the Nutcracker were coming to life! The absurdity of the situation was elevated when the Nutcracker rallied his troops, and engaged in a battle with the Mouse army. When the Nutcracker was desperately evading surrender with his last sliver of strength, Clara impulsively threw one of her dainty slippers at the Mouse King's head. It hit him squarely on the target, and he was overwhelmed by the blow-which gave the advantageous Nutcracker an opportune moment to slay him. The Mouse army was then forced to surrender, and to sorrowfully dispose of their dead King, and wallow in the despair of defeat. The Nutcracker, appreciatively leads his Saviour maiden-Clara- to a glimmering sleigh, as he is transformed into a strikingly handsome prince with a charismatic demeanor. They float into a forest, dusted with a silvery sheen of snow, where delicate snowflakes twirl into a cascade of graceful snow maidens, who serenade the duo with a balletic dance. Act 2: Clara and the Nutcracker then traversed the icy forest into a land abundant with sweets. Crystalline fountains trickled fresh lemonade, buildings sculpted from gingerbread were adorned with swirls of whipped cream, and embellished with gum-drops. Glazed-sugar flowes bloomed, and rich chocolate streams frothed butterscotch ice-cream. The ravishing Sugar Plum Fairy arrived to greet them cordially. The Nutcracker and Clara gave their veritable accoun tof the events that occured that night, and their subsequent heroism in defeating the mephistophelian Mouse King. Favourably impressed, the Sugar Plum Fairy invited them to her decadent Candy Castle-in the midst of a profligate royal festival. Their every desire was catered to, and Clara & the Nutcracker devoured the munificent sweets generously presented to them. Then, a programme of dances planned for the festival captivates their rapt attentions. A fiery group of gorgeous Spanish female dancers Tango a traditional Spanish dance to add flavour to the uproarious event. In the Arabian dance, luscious female unwinds and contorts her body into exotic shapes while wearing the exotic and flowing Arab robes, accentuated by shimmering jewels and mellifluent music. Finally, a clipped Asian flute chirrups a rapid, yet charming passage of music while a precise Mandarin dance unfolds. Rosy and hearty Russian dolls stimulate the entertainment while blythely leaping to a spritely Russian dance. Perhaps the most fascinating act unfolds when a plump, rotund and kindly-looking woman bustled onto the court stage and lifted the immense hoops of her skirt. Out pranced eight jovial children who all merrily danced a light-hearted jig around her in a circle. As the dance concluded, the young children scampered back into their Mother's (affectionatlely addressed as Mother ginger) billowing skirts. Then, the beautiful flower fairies perform a dainty and delicate flower waltz that transcends all clara's anticipationa nd expectations. At the end of the evening, the Sugar Plum Fairy exhibited her dancing grace after performing a breath-taking Pas de Deux with a dashing cavalier in awe of her radiant beauty. Clara, flabbergasted by the extraordinary experience she has had the privilege to realize, was transported back to reality, where she groggily awoke to sunlight streaming across the very living room in which she had spontaneously fallen asleep the night before, cradling her darling Nutcracker in her tender arms. Candy Castle! Arabian Dance from the Nutcracker- Music composed by Tchaikovsky. Waltz of the Flowers- music composed by Tchaikovsky. Performed by the Royal Ballet Company. Pyotr Ilich Tchaikovsky: 1840-1893 Philosophy..... Voltaire was a hugely influential and egalitarian French philosopher who revolutionized ideas about justice, morality, and the distinctive separation between state law and religious beliefs which were-until that time-closely intertwined. Voltaire also contributed to the propagation of knowledge and was one of the "Enlightenment" philosophers. His work was inspirational to very influentisl figures in thes cheme of that era- such as the Russian Empress, Catherine the Great. Catherine'swhose sheer determination and sapience transformed Russia into the most economically and socially powerful empire in Europe in that time period. Voltaire's work-spiked with piercing witticism- outlasted the test of time and is still revered and debated upon today, in modern society. The Enlightment, and the realization of social power and democracy over the oppressive reign of Monarchy was inspired by the spreading of information through new media outlets (encyclopedias, etc.) made knowledge much more transferrable, and fueled the abolitionists' desire to terminate the limiting rule of monarchy, that stultified information rather than spreading it. The Enlightenment was a ground-breaking revelation where common people began to realize the power of propagating abundant quantities of knowledge and resources, in order to extend education and opportunities, through democracy and a diplomatic outlook on society. These new and outrageous ideas were a far cry from the stifling monarchial power that had smothered many European countries-namely France-in the grips of deprivation for centuries. The French revolutionaries favoured the Enlightenment, as well as the quality of life, and opportunistic futures that it sought to grant citizens. The enlightenment promoted public awareness and informativeness, much different from the ignorance and lack of education amongst commoners that had plagued Europe for ages. Great philosophers such as Voltaire and Pierre Bayle. Isaac Newton's discovery of gravity led to technological advancements and a greater understanding of life's mechanisms and sciences- which had been greatly speculative up until then. American inventors such as Benjamin Franklin were profoundly affected by the principles and intellectual ideas that the Enlightenment and its philosophy introduced. In short, this period of time positively affected societal structure as well as government structure indefinitely. The Age of Enlightenment was the first peremptory intriduction to global connections , along with the first publication of the encyclopedia and philosophical masterpieces. The liberty of transferring knowledge, scientific discovery, and the power of technology were all fascinating concepts to the world, and they significantly altered the way humanity fuctions in different societies. Theme of Romantic Period's music= profound and all-encompassing emotional libery (ex: love contrasting with antipathy). .......................... Born: October 22, 1811 in Raiding. Raiding is a town which is situated in Austria. Died: July 31st, 1886, Bayreuth, Bavaria (Germany). An opulent and ornate Barvarian theatre, located in Bayreuth, where Liszt was laid to rest. Antonin Leopold Dvorak: 1841-1904 Controversial ideas and philosophies circulated around European countries such as France. The death of a handsome, suave and masterful composer was regretfully announced. :( R.I.P. Frédéric François Chopin was born on March 1st, 1810 in Zelazowa Zola- a menial village tucked into the district of Warsaw, Poland. He was of mixed ancestry and heritage; his parents were French and Polish. Chopin was a virtuosic pianist and performer, yet he composed numerous pieces that were emollient, soothing and romantic. Tragically, Chopin's poor health and hemorrhaging resulted in his untimely demise on the 17th of October, 1849, at the relatively tender age of thirty-nine. His music was refined and nuanced, creating a light an airy quality of the ethereal. Frédéric François Chopin: 1810-1849 Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn:
Born: February 3rd 1809 in Hamburg, Germany
Deceased: November 4th 1847 in Leipzig, Germany
Notable Compositions: Elijah, Violin Concerto
no. 1, The Instrumental Wedding March. Mendelssohn Robert Alexander Shumann:
Born: June 8th 1810, in Zwickau, Germany.Died: July 29th 1856, in Endenich, Germany.
Robert Shumann was considered to be one ofthe composers whose effulgent work was most demonstrative of the Romantic era. Robert Shumann's wife Clara Shumann was a brilliant concert pianist, who, after Shumann's death, raised their four children and continued to earn a relatively lucrative income performing piano concerts. Clara also maintained a correspondance and amity with Brahms, another renowned composer of the times. Clara Shumann: 1819-1896 Born: May 22, 1813 in Leipzig, Germany.
Died: February 13, 1883 in Venice, Italy.
Wagner was known for his rich, colossol operas and symphonies accompanied by scores of musicians in huge, dynamic orchestras.Wagner's operatic works-which appeased all one's senses-were his principal legacy, and are his best known works. An ostentatious and auriferous opera house, much like the ones that Wagner would have performed in. In the Romantic period, as aforementioned, the musical pieces generally had long, elongated lines and lyricism. Also, the phrasing was often irregular, with wide patterns, and abtract skips. The melody was smooth and flowing, but also contrasted vividly with one movement or a sequence in a piece. The tempo also fluctuated regularly, with virtuosic, rapid and extremely difficult passages spiking a languorous piece or movement, wrought with sentiment and (often) exaggerated emotion and/or feeling. The musical texture was generally homophonic, as was that of the Classical era, yet it relied less on the old methods of Counterpoint. In orchestral works, woodwind instruments were being added to increase the variety of sound in orchestras, and orchestra music was becoming fuller and more moving because they now had the wherewithal to produce a richer and more enticing sound. And a 1 and 2 and 3, up 1 and 2 and 3 and 4 and two and three. The romantic period allowed musicians to delve into the emotions that had been muscially restrained for centuries, unleasing a barrage of profundity, sentimentality and sincerity that sculpted music's pathway for years to come. .... .... ............................ .... .... Contemporary Period Characteristics: In contemporary music, which began to form roots in the early 1900s, there is a greater exploration of abstract sound, which evolved from the Impressionism which was so widely recognized in the Romantic period. This new development of atypical and atonal music was extremist, and angular; maximizing new revolutionary ideas, that had overturned the music world's traditional principles. Twelve-tone music was introduced, and its eery, dissonant quality was a completely pleonastic and foreign concept. this music had a certain appeal however, because linear, harsh and precisely slicing musci continued to be published in droves. There was much more liberty in experimentation in the contemporary era then there ever had been before. Revelations were discovered by utilizing amplified sound to propel an audience into a frenzy, and electronics were utilized to modify sound and facilitate creative new discoveries. A fresh and engrossing era was beginning to emerge. Contemporary music began to develop roots in modern society in the early 1900s. As technical progressions became increasingly advanced, and studios produced efficient musical outlets, sound amplification and the propagation of music through electronics were greatly increased, and the popularity of emerging genres such as jazz also increased exponentially. Stereo System In the Contemporary period, as opposed to the languid romanticism of the Romantic period, melodies were generally less lyrical and more abrupt and dissonant. There was great intrigue in musically abstract concepts, and they were used frequently to pique audience's curiosity and fanaticism. The Contemporary composers were, as a rule, aficionados of clean, precise musical lines, and intricate, scattered rhythms. There was a great use of percussion in the contemporary era, along with woodwings and brass instruments (brass instruments were used in Jazz especially). As aforementioned, throughout the later twentieth century, synthetic sounds produced from electronics were ingeniously-conceived devices that began to achieve mainstream and widespread usage. The alteration of sound was a new and glittering idea in the minds of fresh generations and audiences. Contemporary music, along with Contemporary design, visual art and dance, favoured piercing geometrical lines that sliced a pattern, movement or canvas. This era's creative art is partial to an elegant, understated simplicity of style that allowed scope for an abundance of impulsiveness and an essenceof rash spontaneity and artistic liberty. In modern dance, dancers were capable of created vastly differenciating intersecting lines, angles and shapes with fluid agility. precision and control. In one of the Contemporary period's most extreme and probing experiments, a performer named John Cage initiated a musical tidal wave when he simply walker up to the gleaming piano at which he was expected to perform, sat down and prepared himself, and then was utterly silent for the duration of the "performance", which lasted exactly 4 minutes and 33 seconds. The philosophy behind his seemingly irrational actions was that if music was truly perceived to be any sound, then, if there was utter silence in the theatres, then people would be given the opportunity to speculate and contemplat upon the softest sounds that one would not normally pay attention to; therefore creating a cacophony of subtle sounds which were equally as significant as the gradiose concertos performed in a typical symphony or orchestral concert. Sound Waves: In 4 mins, 33 seconds, the audience is left attentive to the tiniest, often imperceptible, noises that create a more abstract, natural form of music. Many concerts have been dedicated to John Cage and his miraculous musical revelation since. John Cage introduced this abstract concept for the first time, when he was due to play a piano piece. Instead he stimulated the audience's senses by permitting them to create and sculpt music from a smattering of the subtle noisesincessantly surrounding them. Subtle, unnoticeable sounds... = Music! The Rite of Spring: Composed by Igor Stravinsky 1882-1971 Written by the temperamental, and often drug-infused Stravinsky the Rite of Spring is a ballet with musical accompaniment that was so unique and ebullient that it caused a riot on its opening night. The momentous ballet was written for Sergei Diaghilev's Ballet Russe, and was choreographed for the renowned dancer Nijinsky. At the ballet's première, at the Theatre des Champs-Elysees, the Rite of Spring's strange movements and dissonant chords wrought havoc, and initiated a writhing riot amongst the audience! The intriguing play has been performed at concert halls ever since, and is a captivating view ot the quintessential Contemporary spirit. The abstract, dissonant, Rite of Spring allows the dancer to modulate her bady in a series of sharp, linear movements that would spellbind audiences around the world, rendering the play a classic ballet demonstrating the pure, unadulterated essence of the Contemporary period. The Rite of Spring, originally performed by the Ballet Russe. Abstract ideology. The End! Thankyou so much for generously taking the time to watch this Prezi, and I ardently hope it taught you something new about music!
*Please feel free to leave a positive/negative comment on my page, but no vulgarity please! Pablo Picasso was an immensely famous and critically-acclaimed abstract and modern, Spanish artist that lived from 1881-1973. His artwork, and utilization of cubism has received ubiquitous accolades, and he is regarded as one of the first artists to delve into the labyrinthine and symbolic genre of abstract art. Music is the most divine entity that has been discovered and widely propagated by human kind, and is the breadth of beauty on which our very existence is inscribed
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