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NATO and the European Security
Transcript of NATO and the European Security
NATO: is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949. The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party.
Europe: European Union ? Or the continent ?
Pre-ESDP period Cold War – NATO vs. Warsaw Pact (+neutrality or non-alignment)
WEU – weak security attempt to contain Germany (Brussels Treaty 1948.)
Failure of different attempts to create supranational defence arrangement (most notably EDC 1954.) Proto-ESDP period - Evolutionary development of NATO in contrast to revolutionary development of ESDP
- 4 NATO summits as staging posts
- Prague 2002 Declaration on ESDP: NATO giving EU access to NATO assets and capabilities for operations in which NATO itself is not engaged military
- 2003 “Berlin plus”- very important, provides for EU access to NATO operational planning, NATO capabilities and common assets, NATO European command operations and the NATO defense planning system adapted to the needs of Europeans
- 1989 – demise of the Warsaw Pact
NATO side – period of self-examination, finding new raison d’être
EC/EU side – Maastricht Treaty (1992)
- Creation of the CFSP(“...common defence policy which might in time lead to common defence” TEU)
- Rebirth of the WEU as a European defence organization
WEU as a model for understanding the EU because of its variable geometry
- 1992: Petersberg tasks
- 1994: NATO decides to make available assets & capabilities for WEU operations
- 1997: Amsterdam treaty: Strengthening of the commitment on military security
Closer institutional relations with the WEU with a possibility of its integration into the Union
Inclusion of the Petersberg tasks in the text
High Representative for CFSP (+ Secretary General of the WEU)
From Aspirations to Operations - Turning point – St. Malo agreement (change of attitude of T. Blair, reason Kosovo) – start of the ESDP
- Two means of implementing EU-led operations: with NATO assets and capabilities, or without them.
- Cologne meeting of the European Council 1999: EU and NATO activities should be “complementary” and not “competitive”.
- Creation of institutions to support the decision (Political and Security Committee, Military Committee, Military Stuff , etc.)
- June 2004 new plan “Headline Goal 2010”:
- First non-NATO military structure to emerge in post-Cold War Europe
Atrophy in transatlantic relations - Quality of US – Europeans relations as significant (the most important) factor in “division of labor” between the EU and the NATO.
- Relative military weakness of the Europeans toward the US at the end of the century, and therefore incapability of sustainable Balkan diplomacy.
- Incomparable military budgets after September 11- Despite expectations on both sides of the Atlantic (e.g. Huntington), EU didn’t (try to) become superpower.
- So, what Europe wants? US umbrella, dealing with itself only? “EU foreign policy is the most anemic all the products of EU integration”. Kagan
- Madeleine Albright 1998 concerns about 3 Ds: “decoupling” transatlantic link, “duplicating” defence reources and “discrimination” against the non-EU European NATO members
- The importance of French return in NATO.