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Part 6&7 of Mythology
Transcript of Part 6&7 of Mythology
by: Edith Hamilton
Part 6 & 7
Signy and Sigmund
One day after Byrnhild married Gunnar, she has a fight with Gunnar and learns the truth about Sigurd. She plots her revenge by lying to Gunnar by saying Sigurd revealed himself and slept with her those three night. She tells Gunnar she will leave him unless he kills Sigurd. Gunnar cannot kill Sigurd because he swore brotherhood, so he gets his younger brother to do the job for him. Gundrun wakes up to see her husband dead beside him in bed and starts to wail. This amuses Byrnhild and she laughs once. After that she kills herself for Sigurd because he had faithful to her.
How did Odin and his brothers
create the world?
How does he die?
Whom did he rescue?
Part 7: The Mythology of the Norsemen
Chapter 23: The Norse God
Part 7: The Mythology of the Norsemen
Chapter 22: The Stories of Signy and Sigurd
Days of the week named after Norse Gods
Part 6: The Less Important Myths
Chapter 21: Brief Myths
Odin and his Duties
Who was Odin's wife?
Who was the Thunder-god
Who ruled the Kingdom
What was Midgard?
Who was the Goddess of
Love and Beauty?
Who was Tyr?
Midas was the unintelligent king of Phrygia, the land of the roses. Bacchus, the god of wine, granted Midas the gift of the gold touch. Midas then realized he could not eat or drink so he traveled to the source of the river Pactolus to have his gift removed.
A Valkyrie named Byrnhild disobeys Odin so he put her to sleep until a man wakes her. He surrounds her with a ring of fire that only a hero can Brave. Sigurd braves the fire and Byrnhild gives herself to him. He says he will return for her and marry her. Some days later Sigurd leaves. He goes to the home of the Giukungs and swears brotherhood with the king, Gunnar. Gunnar's mother Griemhild, wants Sigurd for her daughter Gudrun, so she slips him a magic potion that makes him forget about Byrnhild. He marries Gudrun then, under Griemhild's powers, takes the form of Gunnar (who was too afraid) and braves the ring of fire again. Three days later Sigurd returns with Byrnhild and she finds out that sigurd married Gudrun. Because of this, she agrees to marry the real Gunnar.
Aescuplius was the son of Apollo and the mortal Coronis. Aescuplius was raised by the centaur Chiron and became a great healer. Aescuplius could heal anyone and bring the dead back to life. Zeus thought no mortal should have this power so he killed him. Aescuplius is now honored in his temples for his healing ability.
The Danaids are maidens that are forced to marry their cousins against their will. their father gives each of them a dagger to kill their new husbands. Only one maiden did not and sent her new husband away to safety. As a punishment they are forced to fill leaky jars from a river in the underworld.
Arachne claimed that she was a better weaver than Minerva, the weaver in Olympus. Minerva challenged her to a weaving competition in which it was a tie. Minerva in anger, turned Arachne into a spider and left with her weaving skill.
How does he die?
Callisto was a maiden that had been turned into a wolf by Zeus. Zeus then fell in love with her and angered Hera. After Callisto's child was born, Hera turned Callisto into a bear and trained her child to hunt her. In order to protect Callisto, Zeus placed her in the stars where she is called the great bear. Her son was later placed beside her in the stars as the lesser bear.
Chiron was the only centaur who was not feisty and mean. He was known throughout for his goodness and wisdom which he used to train many mortals including Aescuplius. Chiron was also the only immortal centaur but was accidentally slain by Hercules.
Zeus loved a queen named Aegina which angered Hera so she killed everyone on Aegina's island. Aegina's son, Aeacus, prayed to Zeus asking him to turn ants into men to fill his city. The next morning an amount of men created from ants came and joined the city.
Balder was the most loved of all the gods. One night he has a terrible dream where he learns that he is doomed to die. After hearing this his mother Frigga goes around the world getting promises from all living things not to harm Balder. She gets promises from everything except mistletoe, which she felt was to puny and weak to ask. At Asgard, all the other gods were throwing rocks, swords, spears, etc. at Balder, but all were falling short. Loki, a god that was actually the son of an ice giant, found out about the mistletoe and gave it to another god to throw at Balder, The other god, thinking item that Loki gave him was just a twig, throws the mistletoe full strength at Balder. The Mistletoe pierces Balder's heart and kills him.
The Pleiades were the seven daughters of Atlas who were constantly pursued by Orion for their love. Zeus, feeling pity for them, placed them in the stars to stay away from Orion. While on earth, Maia gave birth to Hermes and Electra gave birth to Dardanus who founded the Trojan race.
Orion was a man of great beauty who fell in love with the daughter of the King of Chios. He won the King's approval but the King kept putting off the wedding. One day Orion was drunk and insulted the King's daughter. The King then blinded Orion to punish him. Orion was then told by an oracle that he must go to the eastern sunrise to regain his sight . Orion did as he was told and regained his vision and started his journey to get revenge on the King. Orion was never able to find him so he lived with his sister. His sister then slayed him and he was placed in the sky as a constellation.
Odin was the god of the sky and leader of all the other gods of Asgard. His main duty was to postpone Ragnorak (doomsday) the day earth and heaven would be destroyed. He would send his two ravens out every day to gather knowledge. When the other gods ate, Odin would sit and ponder about what his birds told him.
Zeus used an eagle to snatch away the daughter of Asopus the river god. Sisyphus, the king of Corinth, witnessed the taking of Asopus's daughter and told him what he saw. Zeus then struck Sisyphus down and and forced him to forever roll a rock uphill that kept rolling back on him in Hades.
The Valkyries were the maidens of Odin. They waited the table and kept the drinking horns full. Their main jobs were to go to the battlefield and decide who should win and who should die at Odin's Biding. They were also carry the brave dead to Odin.
Asgard isn't like any other heaven that has been thought of or dreamed of. Asgard is where the Norse gods live. Asgard has "No radiancy of joy, no assurance of bliss." Asgard is a solemn and sad place with feeling of inevitable doom. All the gods know that there will be a day when they and Asgard are destroyed.
The basis of Norse mythology is the idea of good and evil. Good is defined by the resisting and and continued resisting of evil. There once was an unnamed Norse Hero who decided to die than surrender. The reason of this is because in Norse mythology it is believed that even in death you can be victorious by not giving into/ surrendering to your enemies.
Signy's husband murdered Signy's father and brothers except for one, Sigmund. Signy and Sigmund took a vow to avenge their brothers and father. Signy and Sigmund then had a child named Sinfiotli. When Sinfiotli had aged, he and Sigmund went and killed Signy's husband. Signy then went and killed herself with her dying husband.
Wednesday- Odin's day. The southern form of his name was Woden.
Thursday- Thor's day.
Tuesday- Tyr's day.
Friday- Generally is referred as Freya's day but some refer to Friday as Frigga's day.
The Goddess Hela was the ruler of the Kingdom of Death. In Norse Mythology the Kingdom of Death is referred to as the woman's sphere of influence. Man controlled the earth while the gods controlled the heavens.
Odin and his brothers killed the first Giant Ymir to create the world. They used his body for the earth and sky, his blood for the seas, and his skull for the heavens. They used his eyebrows to create a giant wall that protected Midgard, the place where mankind was destined to live. on the earth they also placed dwarfs and elves.
Thor was the Thunder-god and also strongest of the Aesir (gods).
Frigga was the wife of Odin. She was said to be very wise, "but she was also very silent and she told no one, not even Odin, what she knew."
She span gold from her spinning wheel, but nobody knows why.
Tyr was the God of War for which Tuesday was named for.
Freya was the Goddess of Love and Beauty. She also had claim to half of those killed in battle. Odin's Valkyries could only carry off half the dead to Valhalla. Freya claimed her share of the dead on the battlefield.
Midgard was Basically the earth. Midgard is referred to the place were mankind, the dwarfs, and the elves lived.
What happens when the gods are defeated by evil?
When the gods are deafeated, earth, sky, and heaven will be destroyed. After that a new earth and heaven will be created.
"In wondrous beauty once again
The dwellings roofed with gold
The fields unsowed bear ripened fruit
In happiness forevermore."
Then the reign of someone higher would come who was even higher than Odin and beyond the reach of all evil
"A greater than all
But I dare not ever to speak his name
And there are few who see beyond
The moment when Odin falls."
What were the Norsemen's two characteristics stated by Hamilton?
Hamilton refers to the Norse as having "awe-inspiring heroism" and also having "delightful common sense."
Part 6: The Less Important Myths
Chapter 20: Midas and Others
Created by: B. Richardson and J. Woodard