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Fish

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by

Fue Xiong

on 2 April 2014

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Transcript of Fish

Fish
Classes
Fishes can be grouped into three classes
Jawless fish belong to the super class
Agnatha
The super class Agnatha consists of two subclasses called the myxini and cephalaspidomorphi
The class
chondrichthyes
include cartilaginous fishes like sharks
The
Osteichthyes
class include bony fishes
Two subclasses of bony fishes are lobe finned fish and lungfish
Origin
Fishes first existed in the late Cambrian,
500
years ago
Ostracoderms
were some of the first fishes and earliest vertebrate fossils known
Ostracoderms went extinct at the end of the Devonian period
Ostracoderms have shields that covered its head and neck
395
years ago fishes have lobe like fleshy fins
Present day Agnathans are direct descendents of ostracoderms
Reproduction
Methods of reproduction in fishes vary
External reproduction
is the most common form of reproduction in fishes
External reproduction is when eggs and sperm is released directly into the water
Most fishes produce large
quantity
of eggs at a time
Bony fishes reproduce using external reproduction
Cartilaginous fishes have
internal reproduction
There are some fish that can produce small quatity of rather large eggs
Diversity
Fishes diverse greatly in
size
and
shape
Agnathans are jawless fishes like the lampreys and hagfishes
Bony fishes are a successful distributed fish
Lobe finned fishes are only represented by two living species
Gills
Fishes breathe using
gills
Fish gills are made up of feathery
gill filaments
and blood vessels
Gills are a important adaptation for creatures who live in water
When a fish breathes, oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchange through the
capillaries
in the gill filaments
Fishes removes oxygen through the gills
Oxygen concentration difference between blood and water is large enough to diffuse oxygen
Inside the gills, blood moves in the opposite direction
Fins
Sensory systems
All fishes have highly developed
sensory systems
Cartilaginous and bony fishes have a
lateral line
adaptation
The lateral line is a long line fluid like canals that run down the fish and enables the fish to sense objects and changes in the environment
The lateral line also helps fishes detect vibrations and movement in the water
Some fishes have an extremely sensitive smell that can detect chemicals in the water
Some fishes have large eyes that helps them see objects and contrast light and darkness
Most fishes have
paired fins
Fishes that are chondrichthyes have paired fins
Fins are
fan
shaped membranes
The endoskeleton is attached to the fin and helps support it
Fins on the ventral and dorsal include dorsal fins and anal fins
Most fishes have a dorsal, caudal, anal, pectoral, and pelvic fins
paired fins of a fish include the pectoral, pelvic, dorsal and anal fins
fishes uses fins for
balance
, steering, and swimming
Jaws
Jaws were important in vertebrate evolution
Jaws enables a fish to grasp and kill prey with force and power
Jaws enables earlier fish to prey on a much variety of prey and lets them grow to massive sizes
Alot of fishes have jaws like the shark
Two chambered hearts
All fishes have 2 chambered hearts
One heart receives deoxygenated blood while the other heart chamber pumps blood to the capillaries
Blood flow through the body of a fish is relatively slow because most of the heart's pumping action is to push blood out through the gills
Scale
Cartilaginous and bony fishes have skin covered by overlapping rows of scales
Scales are the thin bony plates that formed from the skin
Skins come in different shapes and sizes
Scales can be round, diamond-shaped, or cone- shaped
Skeleton
Most fishes have bony skeletons
All bony fishes have a skeleton made up of bones rather than cartilage
The bone is a living tissue that is hard, mineralized and makes up the endoskeleton of most vertebrates
Separate Vertebrate
The backbone is made up of separate vertebrates
The vertebrate is important in providing a major support structure of the vertebrate skeleton
A separate vertebrate helps provide greater flexibility for fishes
With the separate vertebrate, fishes can propel through the water easier
Swim Bladder
The swim bladder was an evolutionary success of bony fishes
The swim bladder is a thin internal sac found below the backbone in bony fishes
The swim bladder can be filled with oxygen or nitrogenous gas that gets diffuse from fishes blood
Fishes can control it's depth with the swim bladder
Some fishes can remove the gas by expelling it through a duct that connects the swim bladder to the esophagus
Agnatha
Jawless fish belong in the class Agnatha
Agnathans are ectothermic creatures meaning that they don't control their body temperature
Agnathans have a very slow metabolism meaning that they don't really eat a whole lot
Modern day Agnathans have skin
prehistoric agnathans have large heavy dermal Armour
Some modern day Agnathans are lampreys and hagfishes
Chondrichthyes
Chondrichthyes are cartilaginous fishes
Chondrichthyes have skeletons completely made up of cartilage
Their skin is tough and made up of dermal teeth, also known as placoid scales
The skin helps protect the fish and makes the fish more streamlined
They breathe through 5 to 7 gill slits
They also have a adaptive immune system
Chondrichthyes have have internal fertilization
Osteichthyes
Osteichthyes are bony fishes
Have skeletons made up of completely bone rather than cartilage
earliest known fossils of bony fishes is 420 years ago
characterized by stable cranial bones, pectoral girdles are covered with large dermal bones
have swim bladders
have no palcoid scales
2 subclasses, the actinopterygii or ray finned fish and the sarcopterygii or lobe finned fish
Muscular system
Most fishes have paired muscle on each side of their backbone
Muscle contraction forms a S-shaped curve that goes down the body
As each force of the curve hits the back fin, force is applied to the water and pushes the fish forward
Endothermy
Endothermy is to keep a constant temperature above the temperature of the external environment
Some fishes have the ability to elevate body temperature
The advantages of endothermy is increased muscle strength, central nervous system process faster, faster rate of digestion
The disadvantage of endothermy is a higher metabolism meaning the fish will have to consume more to survive
Air Breathing
There are some fishes that can live out of the water for an extended amount of time
Some fishes like the mudskipper can live out of the water for days
There is a variety of methods that allows fish to breathe air
The skin in specific fishes like the anguilid eel helps absorb oxygen directly from the air
The buccal cavity can also allow a fish to breathe in air like in the electric eel
Catfishes can also absorb air through their own digestive tract
Fishes that can breathe and absorb air can allow it to survive in low oxygen concentration waters
Cited sources
"Fish." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 Feb. 2014. Web. 02 Apr. 2014.
"Fish Anatomy." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 30 Mar. 2014. Web. 02 Apr. 2014.
"Fish Gill." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 30 Mar. 2014. Web. 02 Apr. 2014.
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