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England: The Golden Age (1558-1603)

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noriko writz

on 16 November 2012

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Transcript of England: The Golden Age (1558-1603)

England: The Golden Age {1558-1603} By Noriko (Haley) Writz Above: Map of England Who: Who was the main person involved in the event? -Queen Elizabeth I of England Queen Elizabeth I of England played a major role in England's golden age. Elizabeth was never supposed to rule. Elizabeth was third in line to the English throne, after her half-brother Edward, and her half-sister Mary. When she was young, Elizabeth and her half-sister, Mary were claimed illegitimate, and would never rule. Elizabeth's mother, Anne Boleyn was beheaded when Elizabeth was only three, making Elizabeth an illegitimate heir. Her half-sister on the other hand was the daughter of King Henry VIII and his 1st wife, Katherine of Aragon. When Anne Boleyn was executed, King Henry took in a new wife, Jane Seymour, who was his favorite and most beloved wife. After the two married, Queen Jane became pregnant. The child was a boy...what King Henry wanted all along. After many years and many wives, King Henry died and restored Princess Mary and Princess Elizabeth, back to the succession. Elizabeth's half-brother then became king of England, and was now King Edward VI. At the tender age of 16, Edward died from bad health. Princess Mary was supposed to be next in line, but others thought she should not be queen, so the people placed Elizabeth's distant cousin, lady Jane Grey, on the throne. Sadly, Mary made sure everyone knew it was her turn to rule, by ordering Queen Jane Grey's execution. After 5 years of ruling England, Queen Mary died, and Elizabeth became queen. Elizabeth was crowned queen in the year of 1558, she would rule England until 1603. Now people think of her reign as the golden age.

I know I have the body of a weak and feeble woman, but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and of a king of England too.

-Queen Elizabeth I of England -King Philip II of Spain King Philip II of Spain played a major
role in England's Golden Age. King Philip
was Queen Mary of England's (Queen Elizabeth I's
half-sister) husband until her death in 1558.
Philip was a rival of Elizabeth I. Philip wanted
to overthrow Elizabeth I and take the English
throne for himself. This activity started an uproar
in England. Philip declared war on England. This
war is now called The Spanish Armada. Philip ruled
Spain from 1556 to 1598.

It is impiety, and almost blasphemy to presume to know the will of God. It comes from the sin of pride. Even kings, Brother Nicholas, must submit to being used by God's will without knowing what it is. They must never seek to use it.

- King Philip II of Spain (a quote remarked by Philip
after the Spanish Armada) -Mary, Queen of Scotland Mary Stuart {Mary, Queen of Scotland} became Queen of Scotland at the age of 6 days old, after her father King James V of Scotland died in a battle. Mary, Queen of Scotland was a distant cousin of Queen Elizabeth I of England. Mary, Queen of Scotland played a major role in England's "Golden Age". At the age of 6 years old, Mary was sent to France to one day marry the dauphin {highest prince in the land apart from the king, in France} and also become Queen of France one day. When Mary turned 16 years old, she married Francis, the French dauphin. Within a year the King of France died and Francis and his wife, Mary Stuart, became King and Queen consort of France. Later, at the age of 18, Mary's first husband, Francis, died of an illness, and Mary became a widow. After her husband's death, Mary traveled back to Scotland, and took charge. Another marriage came and went. This time Mary married an English nobleman, named Lord Darnley, the one and only husband to give her what she needed... an heir to the Scottish Throne. The marriage was a shipwreck and ended in disaster. Mary's very last marriage was to the love her of her life, the Earl of Bothwell. Once the Scottish nobility heard of this, they made Mary abdicate, and give up her titles and land. Mary finally got away from Scotland, and traveled to England, where her distant cousin was Queen. What she did not know was her horrible fate awaited her in England. Mary Stuart and Queen Elizabeth became rivals after the plot to overthrow Queen Elizabeth and place Mary Stuart on the English throne. It was thought that Mary had played a part in the plot to overthrow Elizabeth. After being imprisoned in England for many years, Queen Elizabeth decided that her distant cousin was to much of a threat to the English throne and ordered her execution. Elizabeth did not actually witness the beheading of Mary Stuart, but it is said that Mary's neck had grown large throughout her long and stressful years, and when the axe fell on her neck, it took 2 blows to severe the head, which would be very painful and disturbing. Mary Stuart lived from 1542 to 1587. She died at the age of 44.

"In my end is my beginning."
-Mary, Queen of Scotland Lovers of Queen Elizabeth I:
-Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester
-Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex What: Bibliography:




The Spanish Armada By Colin Martin and Geoffrey Parker (Book)

http://www.information-britain.co.uk/famdates.php?id=231 When: -Fifteen-year-old Mary Stuart (Mary, queen of Scotland) marries the 14-year-old Francis, dauphin of France.
date: April 24th, 1558

-The death of Queen Mary I of England (Elizabeth Tudor's half-sister)
date: November 17th, 1558

-Reign of Elizabeth Tudor begins
date: November 17th, 1558

-The coronation of Elizabeth Tudor, making her Queen Elizabeth I of England
date: January 15th, 1559

-Cambrasis Peace treaty signed between England and France - Calais to remain in French hands for eight years and then be restored to England.
date: April 2nd, 1559

-The Elizabethan religious settlement is passed by Parliament.
date: April 29th, 1559

-The death of King Henri II of France, Mary Stuart and her husband Francis, become King and Queen of France.
date: July 10th, 1559

-Treaty of Berwick between England and Scotland.
date: February 22nd, 1560

-Mary of Guise (Mary Stuart's mother) dies in Scotland and Mary's husband, Francis, also passes away.
date: June 11th, 1560

-English gave support for the successful Scottish Protestant rebellion of 1560 led by John Knox
date: 1560s

-Treaty of Edinburgh between England, France, and Scotland.
date: July 6th, 1560

-The wife of Robert Dudley (lover of Queen Elizabeth I of England), Amy Robsart, is found dead at the foot of the stairs in her home, Cumnor Place, Oxford.
date: September 8th, 1560

-Return of Mary Stuart ( Mary Queen of Scots ) to Scotland
date: August 19th, 1561

-Treaty signed at Hampton Court ,Elizabeth pledges support of the French Huguenots
date: September 20th, 1561

-Elizabeth cancels a meeting with Mary, Queen of Scots because of Mary’s continued attacks of French Protestants - they never meet
date: July 15th, 1562

- Queen Elizabeth almost dies of Smallpox
date: 1562

-Philip's Policy - Prelude to War
date: 1562

-The Thirty-nine Articles, which complete establishment of the Anglican Church
date: 1563

-When the Black Death ( Bubonic Plague ) broke out in London in 1563, Queen Elizabeth I moved her court to Windsor Castle where she erected gallows and ordered that anyone coming from London was to be hanged

-Mary Queen of Scots sends her secretary to Elizabeth claiming the right of succession
date: 1563

-The Peace of Troyes between England and France
date: 1564

-The Lord Darnley marriage to Mary Queen of Scots - Mary marries her 19-year-old cousin Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley; aged 22
date: 1565

-Mary Stuart's only child is born (James, later king of Scotland and England)
date: June 19th, 1566

-Murder of Lord Darnley, husband of Mary Queen of Scots
date: February 10th, 1567

-Mary Queen of Scots marries James Hepburn, the 30-year-old Earl of Bothwell causing a rebellion
date: 1567

-Mary Queen of Scots imprisoned
date: May 15th, 1567

-Mary abdicates and her baby son, James, becomes King James VI, King of Scotland - her illegitimate brother, the Earl of Murray acts as Protector
date: July 24th, 1567

-May 13, 1568 Mary of Scotland escapes from captivity, is defeated at Langside

-The Flight to England - The Catholic Mary Queen of Scots is imprisoned by Elizabeth I at Fotheringay Castle
date: 1568

-Parliament and the Queen's marriage
date: 1568

-Elizabeth exonerates Mary Queen of Scots from the charges made against her
date: 1569

-The Nevilles of Durham and Percys of Northumberland plot to overthrow Elizabeth I and reinstate Roman Catholicism in “The Rising of the North”
date: 1569

-Pope Pius V heard of the revolt and decided to help the rebels by deposing Elizabeth.
The rebellion failed but the Pope's action increased her distrust of Catholics
date: 1569

-The leaders are later executed
date: 1569

-Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk is imprisoned in the Tower for plotting to marry Mary, Queen of Scots
date: October 1st, 1569

-1570 The excommunication of Elizabeth I by the Catholic Church

-Marriage negotiations between Elizabeth and Henry, Duke of Anjou
date: January 2nd, 1571

-1572 August 24, St Bartholomew's Day massacre where French Protestants were massacred by French Catholics in Paris which was witnessed by Sir Philip Sidney, Sir Walter Raleigh and Sir Francis
Walsingham. Similar atrocities elsewhere in France result in thousands of deaths, and caused panic in England with fears of a Catholic invasion

-Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, is executed at the Tower of London
date: 1574

-Queen Elizabeth declines to accept the sovereignty of the Netherlands
date: November 14th, 1575

-The Earl of Essex is restored the title of "Earl Marshal of Ireland"
date: May 9th, 1576

-The Earl of Essex dies
date: September 22nd, 1576

-Alliance between England and Netherlands
date: 1577

-Mary Queen of Scot's third husband, the earl of Bothwell dies in a prison in Denmark
date: April 14th, 1578

-Robert Dudley secretly marries Lady Lettice Knollys, at Wanstead
date: September 21st, 1578

-Francis, Duke of Anjou, visits Queen Elizabeth at Greenwich hoping to marry her
date: August 17th, 1579

-The Privy Council fails to support Queen Elizabeth in the marriage treaty with the Duke of Anjou
date: October 7th, 1579

-A marriage treaty between Queen Elizabeth and the Duke of Anjou is signed.
date: November 7th, 1581

-Francis, Duke of Anjou dies
date: June 15th, 1584

-Elizabethan War with Spain from 1585 - 1604 exploded due to various conflicts surrounding the wealth and power to be gained from trade from the New World. And the differences in Religion.

-Robert Dudley leads the English army to fight the Spanish forces who are occupying the Netherlands
date: December 8th, 1585

-Conspiracy against Elizabeth I involving Mary Queen of Scots
The Babington Plot - Sir Francis Walsingham discovers plot to assassinate Queen Elizabeth and replace her with Mary Queen of Scots. The leader of the plot was Anthony Babington
date: 1586

-Mary Queen of Scots is convicted of involvement in the Babbington plot
date: October 25th, 1586

-Execution of Mary Queen of Scots
date: February 8th, 1587

-England at war with Spain
date: 1587

-The Spanish Armada of 132 ships is defeated by the English fleet of 34 ships and 163 armed merchant vessels under Lord Howard of Effingham, Sir Francis Drake, and Sir John Hawkins ( war between Spain and England continues until 1603 )
date: August 8th, 1588

-Lord Robert Dudley dies
date: September 4th, 1588

-The death of Pope Innocent IX during the previous year had left the Papal throne vacant. Ippolito Aldobrandini is elected Pope Clement VIII.
date: January 30th, 1592

-1593 London Theatres close due to the Bubonic Plague (The Black Death)

-King Philip II sends a second armada against England - a storm scatters his ships
date: 1597

-King Philip II of Spain dies and is succeeded by Philip III
date: September 13th, 1598

-25th February 1601 Robert Devereux (1566-1601), Earl of Essex is executed on Tower Green

-Queen Elizabeth I dies and the Tudor dynasty ends
date: March 24th, 1603

-James I of England, James VI of Scotland, (great-great-grandson of Henry VII) is proclaimed Timeline of the Elizabethan Era: The two main events, that I am focusing on are the Spanish Armada and the plot against Queen Elizabeth I of England, to place Mary Stuart on the English throne.

-The Spanish Armada:

The Spanish Armada began on August 8th, 1588 and ended on July 29th, 1588. The Spanish Armada was a war between England and Spain. Queen Elizabeth I of England and King Philip II of Spain were rivals. King Philip II thought England should be under Spanish rule, because Philip was the widower of Queen Elizabeth's half-sister, Mary. Queen Elizabeth obviously did not agree. Philip tried to win England for Spain, but failed in the process. Many English ans Spanish ships sank during this war, and many died. Spain was defeated on July 29th, 1588, leaving King Philip II in disgrace.

-The plot to overthrow Queen Elizabeth I of England, and place Mary Stuart on the English throne:

Since England previously was a Catholic practicing country, many people thought Elizabeth should not rule England, and instead have Mary Stuart rule, because she was a Catholic. Mary Stuart was accused many times of plotting against Queen Elizabeth I. Many say Mary Stuart was involved in the plot to overthrow Queen Elizabeth I, but Mary never admitted to it. Some English and Scottish people were involved in the plot, and were tried and some even had been beheaded or hanged. Mary Stuart was beheaded on February 8th, 1587. Above: Map of The Spanish Aramda Where: England's Golden Age was located in Europe, but more specifically, England. Some of the events that happened occurred in other European countries as well, like Spain and Scotland. The United Kingdom held other countries other than England. Scotland, Wales, Ireland, and Northern Ireland were part of the island country of the United Kingdom. The Spanish Armada, for example took place in the sea area around the United Kingdom, and was also fought near Spain and France. The main countries that were involved in this major event were England, Scotland, and Spain. England and Scotland are neighboring countries, because they are both located on the island of the United Kingdom. Spain is just South of France, and the only thing dividing France from England is the English channel. Above: Map of Europe Why: -Why did this event happen:

This event happened because of a strong ruler, good armies for wars, and the location of England. The ruler of England at this time was Queen Elizabeth I. Queen Elizabeth was determined to rule her country alone, and to never marry. This effected England in many good ways and bad ways. A good thing, is that England is an island country and the only way of getting there is over seas, which can be more challenging. A bad thing is that there would be more conflict with other countries because if there was no marriage between Elizabeth and a foreign prince, there would be no good alliances. The fact that Elizabeth was a protestant, and England had been a Catholic country for so long, it was a good change to let people believe whatever religion they wanted to, protestant, catholic, etc.

-Why is this event important to know about:

I feel that this event is important to know about because it gives you more knowledge about how England came to be what it is today, and what good and bad things effected England and the world around. Somethings that have helped England today are things like keeping England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland, and Northern Ireland as one united country, which is now called the United Kingdom. Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex QUESTION:

What country did Elizabeth I rule over and for
how long? ANSWER:

Elizabeth I ruled over England and she ruled over
England for 45 years.
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