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Dark Matter and Dark Energy

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Julian Luna

on 7 April 2016

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Transcript of Dark Matter and Dark Energy

~27% of the Universe
Accounts for gravitational effects that appear to be the result of invisible mass
The name is a placeholder for something unknown
Discovered through Gravitation lensing
Doesn't emit or absorb light or any other forms of electromagnetic energy
Controls where ordinary matter piles up to form galaxies and stars
non-baryonic matter(not made of quarks)
D A R K M A T T E R
G R A V I T I O N A L L E N S I N G
D A R K M A T T E R
A N D
D A R K E N E R G Y

In 1932, Jan Ooort observed that stars were moving faster than calculated.
Used the term "dark matter" to describe the
unidentified mass that caused the difference in the stars velocity
Then a year later, Swiss astronomer, Fritz Zwicky used the the speed of galaxy cluster orbits to get the mass of the cluster
However, when he compared the mass of clusters to the mass he derived, they are completely different
Zwicky independently came to the same same conclusion as Ooort
H I S T O R Y OF D A R K E N E R G Y
D A R K M A T T E R
A N D
D A R K E N E R G Y
D A R K M A T T E R
A N D
D A R K E N E R G Y

H I S T O R Y O F
D A R K M A T T E R
D A R K E N E R G Y
The diagram above shows the changes in rate of expansion of the universe since its birth 15 billion years ago. Notice the change around 7.5 billion years ago as this is where objects in the universe began moving apart at a faster rate.
S O U R C E S
http://science.howstuffworks.com/dictionary/astronomy-terms/dark-matter.htm
http://science.nasa.gov/astrophysics/focus-areas/what-is-dark-energy/
hubblesite.org/hubble_discoveries/dark_energy/de-what_is_dark_energy.php
http://www.space.com/20929-dark-energy.html
https://www.ted.com/talks/patricia_burchat_leads_a_search_for_dark_energy?language=en
http://www.cfhtlens.org/public/what-gravitational-lensing
http://www.astronomytoday.com/cosmology/darkmatter.html
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/dark-energy-the-biggest-mystery-in-the-universe-9482130/?no-ist
http://home.fnal.gov/~skent/early.html
http://science.howstuffworks.com/dictionary/astronomy-terms/big-crunch5.htm

Through thousands of years of studying the sky, astronomers have discovered more than 400 planets orbiting other stars, over 100 billion stars in our own galaxy, and hundreds of billions of galaxies beyond our own. Yet all the baryonic matter in this universe represents a mere 5 percent of what’s actually out there.






So what makes up the
rest of the universe ?
In theory, dark energy is a kind of dynamical energy fluid or field.
Something that fills all space but something whose effect on the expansion of the Universe is the opposite of that of matter and normal energy
It was named "quintessence" after the fifth element of the Greek philosophers
Even if quintessence was the answer, we don't know why it exists, what it is like or what it interacts with.
K E Y S C I E N T I S T S O F D A R K M A T T E R
Albert Einstein
predicted gravitation lensing in his general theory of relativity


Jan Ooort
in 1932 postulated the existence of dark matter to account for the orbital velocities of starts in the Milky Way


Fritz Zwicky
in 1933 compared the mass of clusters to the mass he derived and ended up with different results, the difference between the two being dark matter
Predicted by Einstein in 1917 as he tried to balance the equations of his general theory of relativity, he called it the cosmological constant
He thought that there must be a force in the universe to spread everything around so evenly and assumed the universe was going to be changeless
However in 1929, Edwin Hubble showed that the universe was expanding and not static like Einstein thought.
Then in 1998 observations made by the Hubble Space Telescope of a very distant supernovae showed that the universe was actually expanding
The expansion of the Universe has been accelerating

I M P L I C A T I O N S O F
Edwin Hubble
D A R K E N E R G Y
Albert Einstein
An idea of the future of the universe suggests that phantom energy causes divergent expansion. This implies that the effective force of dark energy continues growing until it dominates all other forces in the universe and ultimately tears apart all everything from galaxies and solar systems to atoms themselves. This would end the universe in a "Big Rip."

Another idea of the future is that dark energy would dissolve with time or become attractive. This leads to the possibility of the universe contracting in on itself in a "Big Crunch."

The universe could continue on in its present state forever and never end. While all these ideas are not supported by observations, they're still possible
Could prove one of two theories about the fate of the Universe
The universe is gonna expand forever
The universe will collapse in a 'Big Crunch'
Ω = the ratio of the actual density of the Universe to its critical density
If Ω > 1 then gravity will cause the universe to collapse on itself
If Ω < 1 then the universe will perpetually expand
If Ω = 1 then the universe will expand at a decelerating rate perpetually
I m p l i c a t i o n s o f D a r k M a t t e r
Dark energy is theorized to be the force that is expanding the Universe and makes up about 72% of the universe
Empty space is not nothing
According to cosmological constant, empty space can possess its own energy
As more space comes into existence, so does the energy that fills it. This energy accelerates the expansion of the Universe.
The quantum theory of matter explains how space acquires energy
Empty space is filled with temporary or virtual particles that continually form and then disappear.
Physicists attempted to calculate how much energy this would give empty space but were off by 10^120
Presentation by Julian Luna, Winter Martin, Dennis Tang P.5
C O N T I N U E D
Fritz Zwicky
Jan Ooort
Q U I Z
W h a t d i d E i n s t e i n b e l i e v e a b o u t t h e u n i v e r s e ?

A)The universe is static
B)The universe is expanding
C)The universe is condensing
D)None of the above

B a r y o n i c m a t t e r m a k e s u p h o w m u c h o f t h e u n i v e r s e (p e r c e n t)?
What is the force that is expanding the universe?

A) dark energy
B) dark matter
C) empty space
D) gravity
A)17%
B)27%
C)5%
D)72%
W h a t i s D a r k M a t t e r?

A)Baryonic Matter
B)Non-Baryonic Matter
C)Dark Energy
D)None of the above
Which idea would lead to the universe collapsing in on itself?

A) Heat Death
B) Big Crunch
C) Big Bang
D) Big Rip
W h o F I R S T p o s t u l a t e d t h e
e x i s t e n c e o f d a r k m a t t e r?

A)Albert Einstein
B)Susan Swanson
C)Jan Ooort
D)Fritz Zwicky

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