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Copy of Fluid And Electrolyte Imbalance Quiz
Transcript of Copy of Fluid And Electrolyte Imbalance Quiz
a) Interstitial Fluid accumulation
b) High ECF levels of water and sodium
c) Transcellular fluid accumulation
d) Decreased capillary oncotic pressure Fluid And Electrolyte Imbalances Fluid and Electrolyte balance is important for?
a) Life and Homeostasis
b) To help prevent and treat fluid and
c) To increase the fluid in the interstitial space
d) To encourage 3rd space loss of fluid Question #5 Question #4 What is the nursing role related to fluid and electrolyte imbalances?
a) To help prevent and treat fluid and electrolyte disturbances
b) To ensure there is a balance between opposing forces
c) to treat hypokalemia
d) none of the above
Fluid balance at the capillary level:
a) Relies on a balance between opposing forces
b) Relies on the pushing force of hydrostatis pressure
c) Relies on the pulling force of oncotic pressure
d) All of the above True or False:
Excess interstitial fluid is taken
up by the lymphatics and returned to the central circulation Increase in tissue hydrostatic pressure:
a) can happen when the lymphatics remove excess fluid
b) Can cause lymphatic obstruction to occur in liver disease or physical obstruction from surgery
c) Can be complicated by decreased tissue oncotic pressure
d) none of the above Edema is:
a) An increase in fluid in the interstitial space
b) A decrease in fluid in the interstitial space
c) An increase in pull factors
d) An increase in the plasma proteins Question #8 The most common side effect to increased intracranial pressure in the brain is:
a) Abnormal pupil size
b) Changes in respiration patterns
d) Coma Question #9 When fluid is forced out of the capillaries at the level of the lungs, and accumulates around the alveoli, the result is a decrease in gas exchange and inflation:
b) False Question #10 What is this a picture of:
a) Diabetic ulcer on the leg
b) Pitted edema
c) Peripheral edema
d) Severe burn Question #11 What are the 3 types of extracellular fluids?
a) Intravascular, interstitial and transcellular
b) Intervascular, intrastitial and multicellular
c) intravascular, intrastitial and transcellular
d) Intercellular, extracellular and transcellular Question #12 What are electrolytes:
a) Molecules floating in fluid
b) Only found in IV solutions that are administered to patients in need
c) Found in the foods and drinks we consume
d) Active chemicals that carry positive and negative electrical charges Question #13 What is an osmoreceptor:
a) Located in the hypothalamus and keep track of the osmolarity or the concentration of the blood
b) sensors located in blood vessel walls and in the kidneys that measure the stretch in the vessel walls that is produced by blood volume and blood pressure
c) The major regulators of sodium and water balance
d) None of the above Question #14 What is the most osmotically active particle?
d) Sodium Question #15 What are the major cations?
a) Sodium, potassium and calcium
b) Sodium, magnesium and hydrogen ions
c) Sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium and hydrogen ions
d) Chloride, bicarbonate and phosphate Question #16 What is the role of ADH?
a) It acts on the kidney tubules to retain water and increase blood volume
b) It is the primary regulator of fluid intake
c) ADH is released from the posterior pituitary when the hypothalamus senses a low blood volume or an increased osmolarity
d) All of the above Question #17 What are the major anions?
a) Chloride and bicarbonate
b) Phosphate and sulfate
c) Proteinate ions
d) All of the above Question #18 If the Sympathetic Nervous System is stimulated:
a) The afferent arterioles will constrict, limiting the amount of blood flow to the kidneys
b) The efferent arterioles will constrict, limiting the amount of flood flow to the tissues
c) Results in the release of renin
d) A and C Question #19 Natriuretic Peptides:
a) Cause the kidneys to decrease sodium and water excretion
b) Cause the kidneys to increase sodium and water excretion
c) Increase renin levels
d) Increase aldosterone release Question #20 This image demonstrates loss of skin turgor, this could indicate:
a) Old age
b)A hypertonic fluid volume defecit
c) A hypotonic fluid volume defecit
d) An isotonic fluid volume defecit Question #21 What is hyponatremia?
a) A plasma concentration of sodium of less than 135 mmol/L
b) An increase in sodium related to the amount of body water
c) Serum sodium concentration of more than 145 mmol/L
d) None of the above
Question #22 Infants are at risk of fluid imbalances because they have a higher percentage of body water than adults
Queston #23 Why are the elderly at risk for fluid imbalances?
a) Their percentage of total body water is much less
b) They have a decreased intake of fluid
c) They have a decreased ability to concentrate urine
d) They have less body water to lose Question #24 Weight is used to assess fluid balance because:
a) Rapid changes in weight reflect changes in body fluid volume
b) It is more accurate than intake and output measurements
c) It will become apparent when the interstitial volume has increased by 2.5 L
d) A and B
e) A and C Question #25 Normal urine output in an adult is:
a) 1000-2000 mL/day
b) 500-1000 mL/day
c) 1500-3000 mL/day
d) 2 L/day Question #26 The movement of fluid through capillary walls depends on what two things?
a) Hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure
b) Hydrostatic pressure and oncotic pressure
c) Hydrostatic pressure and osmolar pressure
d) None of the above Question #27 Which is a fluid volume deficit (FVD) and a fluid volume excess (FVE)?
Question # 28 What are the causes of a fluid volume deficit?
a) Vomiting and diarrhea
b) Fluid volume suctioning and sweating
c) Decreased intake and inability to gain excess fluid
d) All of the above Question #29 What are the risk factors for a fluid volume deficit?
a) Coma, hemorrhage and 3rd space shifts
c) Diabetes Mellitis
d) Adrenal sufficiency Question #30 What does dehydration refer to?
a) A loss of sodium
b) A loss of water alone with an increased serum sodium level
c) A gain in sodium
d) A loss of sodium with a gain in potassium Question #31 What would the lab results state for a person experiecing a fluid volume deficit?
a) Elevated BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen)
b) Increased hematocrit
c) Serum elecrtolyte changes
d) All of the above
e) None of the above Question #32 What is the electrolyte imbalance referring to high sodium?
d) Idotonic Question #33 What is the medical management of hyponatremia?
a) Water restriction and sodium replacement
b) Water replacement and sodium restriction
c) Replace sodium and potassium levels
d) Replace all the cation levels Question #34 What could extreme cases of hyponatremia lead to?
d) GI disturbances Question #35 What are some dietary sources of sodium?
a) Fish and meat
b) Fibre and milk
c) Nuts and seeds
d) Dairy products Question #36 True or False: Hyperkalemia refers to serum
potassium levels greater than 5.0 mmol/L?
b) False Question #37 What are some of the causes of hyperkalemia?
a) Treatment related and impaired renal function
c) Tissue trauma and acidosis
d) A, B and C Question #38 True or False: Some of the physical signs of
hypernatremia are: lack of thirst and
b) False Question #39 Hyperphosphotemia is an example of:
a) When phosphorus is lost through the GI tract
b) A phosphorus imbalance
c) Not a common problem but can be serious
d) Signs are often not noticeable until plasma levels exceed 6 mmol/L Question #40 What clinical manifestation of edema does this image represent?
a) An area in the brain
b) Involving the airway
c) Involving the lungs
d) Involving the abdomen Question #41 Vital results of a person with a fluid imbalance will show:
c) Normal Heart rate
d) Increased respiratory rate Question #42 Ill individuals are at risk for fluid imbalances because:
a) They have less body water to lose
b) Decrease in ability to concentrate urine
c) Slower to respond to sodium and water imbalances
d) Fluid where it is not where it is supposed to be can result in dehydration Question #43 When fluid accumulates in the lungs, the patient will show:
a) A productive cough
b) Respiratory distress
d) A and C
e) All of the above Question #44 True or False: The body will
always try to preserve fluid volume
b) False Question #45 Obstruction of lymph flow:
a) Also creates decreased interstitial colloidal osmotic pressure
b) Causes leaky capillaries
c) Is called lymphedema
d) Causes low serum albumin Question #46 Treatment of edema involves:
a) Correcting the problem
b) Controlling the underlying mechanism
c) Treating the symptoms
d) Supportive measures
e) All of the above
f) None of the above Question #47 Which is not involved in the RAAS system?
a) Juxtaglomerular cells
c) Na excretion
d) Renal perfusion pressure Question # 48 Which solution will cause our cells to shrink?
d) Acidic Question #49 What is regulated by Vitamin D,
parathyroid hormone and calcitonin?
d) Phosphorus, Magnesium and Calcium Question #50 This picture plays an important role
in fluid and electrolyte balances, it is:
a) The kidneys
b) The adrenal glands
c) The parathyroid glands
d) The thyroid glands