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History of Catalonia Seminar

Days 1 & 2
by

Joan Esculies

on 30 September 2013

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Transcript of History of Catalonia Seminar

First Settlers Eastern Iberian Peninsula
Comercial & Cultural Contact Mediterranean Civilizations
Foundation
Emporion (Empúries) 600 BC
1st stages: Wars, Invasions, Conquest from 218 BC
Followed by Romanization (Law, Language (Latin), Culture...)
Collapse Roman Empire 476 AD
Visigothic Kingdom Established
Muslim Conquest of Hispania from 711
Charlemagne goes south from 752
Muslims go north
Spanish March
= Buffer Zone
Small Christian Counties
Charlemagne's Vassals
Carolingian (Christian) Empire
IX - X Centuries
988 AD Count Borrell II Breaks off Vassalage
Count (of Barcelona) Wilfred the Hairy:
878 AD unifies 5 counties
897 AD dies = Myth of Catalan Flag
Result: Catalonia appears as an autonomous political entity
a) ? - 1000
b) 1000 - 1500

b.1) Confederacy with Aragon
b.2) The Feudal Kingdom
b.3) Reconquest
b.4) Expansion & Golden Age
b.5) Decadence
Result: Catholic Kings
c) 1500-1714
d)1714-1900
Catalonia Builds up links with Neighbours & Potential Rivals
1137 AD Dinastic Marriage
Confederacy = 1 King but 2 Kingdoms/Territories/States with their own laws
1st king of the Crown of Aragon
The Christian Kingdoms go south.
The Crown of Aragon conquers the Balearic Islands and Valencia during the 13th Century
The Kingom of Leon is annexed by Castile
Aragon conquers Sardinia, Sicily, Kingdom of Naples (southern Italy), Athens
and its region (Greece) between 13 & 14th Centuries
War & Trade
Black Death = Peasants abandon countryside =
Agricultural production falls + Earthquakes =
Famine = Population declines dramatically ...
1410 King of the Crown of Aragon dies with no descendant = End of Barcelona's dinasty
1412 Elected Fernando de Antequera.
Trastamara (Castilian) Dinasty
1469 The son of the King of Aragon, Fernando, marries his cousin, also Trastamara, Isabel
Result The Crown of Aragon unites with the Kingdom of Castile & Leon
1474 Isabel becomes Queen of the Kingdom of Castile & Leon
1479 Fernando becomes King of the Crown of Aragon
Fernando & Isabel become 'Los Reyes Católicos' / the Catholic Monarchs
2 Monarchs : 2 Parliaments (Cortes) : 2(3) languages
a) ?- 1000
b) 1000-1500
c) 1500 - 1714
c.1) America
c.2) Habsburg Monarchy
c.3) Catalan Autonomy?
c.4) The Catalan Revolt
c.5) War of Succession
Result: Lost of Autonomy
d)1714-1900
Columbus (re)Discovers America in 1492
New World
Old World
Carlos I
Kings of Spain From 1516 to 1700
Felipe II
Felipe III
Felipe IV
Carlos II
Toledo
Madrid
The Crown of Aragon (and thus Catalonia) maintained its own:
the Monarchs lived in Madrid = Centralization of Power =
Aragon Cortes less and less summoned
Currency : Customs : Tax System : Law :Catalan as the Main Language...
and the power was represented in Barcelona by
ViceRoy = Governor
1640 - Peasants (Reapers) Revolt. The Viceroy is assassinated
'Death to the
Bad Government'
1701 - 1714
Bourbon
French
Felipe V
Carlos III
Habsburg
Austria
The Crown of Aragon (and thus Catalonia) loses its Autonomy in 1714
11th Sept 1714
Catalan Institutions Abolished
Catalan Language Supressed
Spanish becomes Official Language
Higher Taxes in Catalonia than in Castile
Bourbon Absolutism Begins
End of 7 Centuries of Self-Government
? - 1000
b)1000-1500
c) 1500-1714
d) 1714-1898

d.1) Hello Nationalism
d.2) Nationalism Spreads
d.3) The Crumbling State
d.4) Catalanism Awake
d.5) Turning Point
Result: Catalan Nationalism
Spain in the American Revolutionary War (1776-1783)
French Aid to Revolutionaries = Bankrupt = French Revolution
New Ideas!! = Not fighting 4 the King or God or... BUT 4 the Nation
Consequences of Spreading Nationalism In & Out
OUT
Colonial Claims for Secession
Decline of Spanish Empire
IN
1808-1814
Peninsula War
Guerra de la Independencia Española
Spanish (also Catalonia) vs. French Invasion
Spanish Victory but Napoleon's Ideas Remain
The Spanish State aims to follow the French Project = Assimilation = 1 State = 1 Nation = 1 Language = 1 Law ...

but it is Inefficient to Undertake the Necessary Reforms so...

Not Able to Establish a State School System (in Spanish)
Not Able to Establish a Universal Military Service
Tax Evasion among Lower Classes. Exemptions for the Upper
Catalan
Literary
Revival From 1833 Onwards
Reaction
Romanticism
The Re - Birth
19th Century: Begins Catalan Economic & Cultural Renaissance
Industrial Production Tripled between 1840-1860
Textile Industry in 1860 made 80% of Spanish Text. Market
By mid-19th Catalonia became the 4th largest producer of cotton goods in the World after England, France and the US
Spain's First Railway 1848 Barcelona-Mataró
Barcelona became the 1st city of Spain (Industry+Population) but the capital remained in Madrid
1898

= Spanish American War
= End of Spanish Empire
Turning Point by the end of 19th Century
Does Catalan Nationalism have Secessionist Aims?
NO!
It aims to Reform the Spanish State
Kind of...'Castilian Way' is over.... Let's try the 'Catalan Way'
Madrid
Barcelona
VS.
Administrative Power
Economical Power
While in Catalonia...
The aim of the Catalan

Bourgeoise

is not looking into the Past (Romanticism) like during the Renaixença but into the Future...
Modernity= Modernisme-
Modern Style-Tiffany-Art Nouveau
and at the same time (1890 onwards)
Catalanism (Cultural)
turns into
Catalan Nationalism (Political)
Catalan/Regional Nationalism
Spanish/State Nationalism
The Territorial/Political Unity of Spain it is NOT at stake
Catalanism Organizes Politically (very simple scheme)

Dominant Catalan Nationalist Party
Monarchist
Conservative

Weak
Republican
"Progressist"
Radicals
Partido Republicano Radical
Strong Party in Barcelona
Republican
Non Catholic
Anarchists
Confederación Nacional del Trabajo
Anti-State
Opposing Authority
Against Hierarchy
Workers are also organized in Non-Nationalist Parties or Trade Unions
1900-1923
1914 - 1925
Mancomunitat de Catalunya
Self-Determination
Left-Wing
Catalan
Nationalists
1917
Russian Revolution
Working
Class
Mid-1919
Workers

vs.
Patrons & State
La Lliga
Demands
of Autonomy
1923 - 1930
Capitan General Miguel Primo de Rivera Dictatorship
Abolishes the Mancomunitat (1925)
Catalan Language Forbidden
Catalan Entities Forbidden
Political Parties Forbidden
The King of Spain was still in Power
1931
Spanish Municipal Elections 12th April
Alfonso XIII goes to exile
Republican Parties Win in Major Cities
A Federal Republic
is proclaimed in
Barcelona
14th April - Noon -
14th April - Late Evening
The Spanish Republic
is proclaimed in Madrid
Madrid
Spanish Self-Proclaimed Cabinet
Aims for Unitarian Republic
Barcelona
Catalan Self-Proclaimed Cabinet
Aims for a Spanish Federal Republic
Catalonia = State within Spain
1931-1936: Self-Government Again Since 1714!!!!
1st President of Catalonia
1931-1933
2nd President of Catalonia
1934-1940
Lluís COMPANYS
Francesc MACIA
Left-Wing
Catalan Nationalist
Sort of "Catch-all Party"
1936 - 1939
Spanish Civil War
17th July 1936 Military Uprising against the Republic
Rebels: 1/2 Republican Army + Monarchists + Conservatives + Fascists (Falange)
Supported by Fascist Italy (Mussolini) + Nazi's Germany (Hitler) + Portugal...
Republic: 1/2 Republican Army + Spanish Republican Political Parties + Catalan, Basque Nationalists + (Comunists vs. Anarquists)
Supported by URSS + Mexico + Foreing Volunteers
1939-1975
General Francisco Franco's Dictatorship
Catalan Language Forbidden
Catalan Entities Forbidden
Political Parties Forbidden
The Road to Democracy
20th Nov 1975 Franco Dies
22nd Nov 1975 Juan Carlos becomes King of Spain
17 Autonomies
13 New Regions +
4 Historical Territories: (Catalonia / Basque Country / Navarra / Galicia)
& 2 autonomous cities (Ceuta & Melilla)
1978 - Today
Spanish Nationalism vs. Catalan Nationalism
Centralization vs. Decentralization
Right
La Lliga
LeftDifferent
Minor Parties
Union of the 4 Catalan Provinces
Regional Institution
Lacks Political Power
Always Ruled by La Lliga
"War of Nations"
End 1918
Strikes
HELP
The Clash between
Workers and the State
lasts 1919-1923
Longer and Harder than Primo's
Franco Chosed Juan Carlos as his successor
Catalan Government in Exile
President Josep TARRADELLAS
6th December 1978 Spanish Constitution
23rd October 1977
Tarradellas Return's
Recovery of Autonomous Government
&
Statute
Constitution vs. Catalan Statutes 1979, 2006
History of Catalonia
Study Abroad Seminar
Joan Esculies, PhD
September, 30th, 2013 (Day 1)
Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona
Three Main Concepts to Keep in Mind
1.- The History of Any Country is Linked to Other Countries' History
2.- Try to Understand the Process (Dates & Names are less important)
3.- The History of Catalonia is the History of Spain (and vice versa)
Day 1
... till End of 19th Century

Day 2
20th Century

a) ? - 1000

a.1) Iberians
a.2) Greeks
a.3) Romans
a.4) Visigoths
a.5) Moors
Result: Catalonia
b) 1000-1500
c) 1500-1714
d) 1714-1900
a) ? - 1000
a.1) Iberians

a.2) Greeks
a.3) Romans
a.4) Visigoths
a.5) Moors
Result
:
Catalonia
b) 1000-1500
c) 1500-1714
d) 1714-1900
a) ? - 1000
a.1) Iberians
a.2) Greeks

a.3) Romans
a.4) Visigoths
a.5) Moors
Result
:
Catalonia
b) 1000-1500
c) 1500-1714
d) 1714-1900
a) ? - 1000
a.1) Iberians
a.2) Greeks
a.3) Romans

a.4) Visigoths
a.5) Moors
Result
:
Catalonia
b) 1000-1500
c) 1500-1714
d) 1714-1900
a) ? - 1000
a.1) Iberians
a.2) Greeks
a.3) Romans
a.4) Visigoths

a.5) Moors
Result: Catalonia
b) 1000-1500
c) 1500-1714
d) 1714-1900
Muslims Arrive & Stay in the Peninsula from 8th to 15th Centuries
a) ? - 1000
b) 1000 - 1500
b.1) Confederacy with Aragon
b.2) The Feudal Kingdom

b.3) Reconquest
b.4) Expansion & Golden Age
b.5) Decadence
Result: Catholic Kings
c) 1500-1714
d)1714-1900
a) ? - 1000
b) 1000 - 1500
b.1) Confederacy with Aragon

b.2) The Feudal Kingdom
b.3) Reconquest
b.4) Expansion & Golden Age
b.5) Decadence
Result: Catholic Kings
c) 1500-1714
d)1714-1900
Reconquest
a) ? - 1000
b) 1000 - 1500
b.1) Confederacy with Aragon
b.2) The Feudal Kingdom


b.3) Reconquest

b.4) Expansion & Golden Age
b.5) Decadence
Result: Catholic Kings
c) 1500-1714
d)1714-1900
a) ? - 1000
b) 1000 - 1500
b.1) Confederacy with Aragon
b.2) The Feudal Kingdom


b.3) Reconquest
b.4) Expansion & Golden Age

b.5) Decadence
Result: Catholic Kings
c) 1500-1714
d)1714-1900
Decadence mid-14th-15th
a) ?- 1000
b) 1000-1500
c) 1500 - 1714

c.1) America

c.2) Catalan Autonomy?
c.3) The Catalan Revolt
c.4) War of Succession
Result: Lost of Autonomy
d)1714-1900
but
a) ?- 1000
b) 1000-1500
c) 1500 - 1714

c.1) America


c.2) Catalan Autonomy?

c.3) The Catalan Revolt
c.4) War of Succession
Result: Lost of Autonomy
d)1714-1900
Treaty of the Pyrenees = Catalonia loses part of
its Territory in favour of France (1659)
a) ?- 1000
b) 1000-1500
c) 1500 - 1714

c.1) America


c.2) Catalan Autonomy?
c.3) The Catalan Revolt

c.4) War of Succession
Result: Lost of Autonomy
d)1714-1900
Carlos II dies with no Descendent
Absolutism
Pactism
? - 1000
b)1000-1500
c) 1500-1714
d) 1714-1898
d.1) Hello Nationalism

d.2) Nationalism Spreads
d.3) The Crumbling State
d.4) Catalanism Awake
d.5) Turning Point
Result: Catalan Nationalism
? - 1000
b)1000-1500
c) 1500-1714
d) 1714-1898
d.1) Hello Nationalism
d.2) Nationalism Spreads

d.3) The Crumbling State
d.4) Catalanism Awake
d.5) Turning Point
Result: Catalan Nationalism
? - 1000
b)1000-1500
c) 1500-1714
d) 1714-1898
d.1) Hello Nationalism
d.2) Nationalism Spreads
d.3) The Crumbling State

d.4) Catalanism Awake
d.5) Turning Point
Result: Catalan Nationalism
? - 1000
b)1000-1500
c) 1500-1714
d) 1714-1898
d.1) Hello Nationalism
d.2) Nationalism Spreads
d.3) The Crumbling State
d.4) Catalanism Awake

d.5) Turning Point
Result: Catalan Nationalism
4 Red Stripes on a Gold Shield
Catalonia was a feudal society
due to the influence of the Carolingian Empire

Feudal Structures Spawned a Contractual Relations among Noblemen, Clergy, and Peasants = led to 'Pactist' Assumptions = One of the first European Parliaments = The Monarch had to Negociate with the Parliament (Corts Catalanes) = Through the 'Generalitat' (Institution) the Corts decided the sums of money the King had to receive!!! The Generalitat Maintained Control over the Monarch!!! =
The King is NOT free to do what he wants!!!
The Rest of the Iberian Peninsula did NOT develop a profound feudal society.

In Castile Few Noblemen Kept the Majority of the Land and They ruled over the Kingdom with the King. 'Pactism' is NOT necessary.
The King & the Few go on Their Way

I
n Catalonia the Land was in the Hand of Lots of 'Small' Noblemen
and They had to Cooperate to Start any Project (=easy way to reach Capitalism in the future)
Peasants Aroused Against Behaviour of Spanish King Troop's
Revolt under the Leadership of the Generalitat
Catalans do not want to Pay Taxes to Maintain King's Troops
Nueva Planta Decree
Catalan Language Appears
National Myths Begin
History of Catalonia
Study Abroad Seminar
Joan Esculies, PhD
October 2nd, 2013 (Day 2)
Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona
Last Day
... till End of 19th Century

Today
20th Century

Hello Catalan Nationalism!
Three Main Concepts to Keep in Mind
1.- The History of Any Country is Linked to Other Countries' History
2.- Try to Understand the Process (Dates & Names are less important)
3.- The History of Catalonia is the History of Spain (and vice versa)
La Nacionalitat Catalana (1906)
by Enric Prat de la Riba
Catalonia + Castile
Before:
Spain=
1 State
1 Nation
Catalonia is a Province
Catalonia is a Region
Now:
Spain=
2 Nations
Catalonia will have an Autonomous Government
"Generalitat de Catalunya" (same name as Medieval Institution)
The
Statute of Autonomy
will regulate its Political Power
Spain will be an Unitarian Republic
The Basque Country & Galicia obtained their Statutes of Autonomy in 1936
1940 Executed
In 1936 the Spanish Republic had 3 Statutes of Autonomy
Catalonia+Basque Country+Galicia
Are today's aims of Catalan Nationalism Secessionist?
The Count of Barcelona
Breaks off Vassalage
with the King of the Franks (Carolingian Empire)
End 10th Cent. Catalonia Appears as an Autonomous Political Entity
Due to the Relationship with the Carolingian Empire
the Crown of Aragon becomes a Feudal Society
(while the Kingdom of Castile and Leon follows another path)
The
Crown of Aragon
has a
Strong Parliament
(Corts Catalanes) while the Kingdom of Castile and Leon has a Weak Parliament
End 15th Cent. the Crown of Aragon unites with the Kingdom of Castile & Leon under the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs
2 Monarchs : 2 Parliaments (Cortes) : 2 languages
During 15th & 16th Cent. the Political Power becomes more and more centralized by the Spanish Kings in Madrid
Catalans Revolt in 1640 Against their Own King
The Control over the Monarch is Maintained by the Catalan/Aragonese Parliament through the
Generalitat de Catalunya
(Medieval Institution)
Kingdom of Castile & Leon is Powerful
The Crown of Aragon is Weak.
Its Parliament is less and less important
The Crown of Aragon (and thus Catalonia) loses its Autonomy in 1714
11th Sept 1714
Catalan Institutions Abolished
No More Generalitat de Catalunya
No More Catalan Parliament
Catalan Language Supressed
Spanish becomes Official Language
Higher Taxes in Catalonia than in Castile
Bourbon Absolutism Begins
Nueva Planta Decree
War of Succession 1701-1714
Catalans against Felipe V
Catalan Nationalism has
NO Secessionist
Aims.
It aims to
Reform
the Spanish State
Madrid
Barcelona
VS.
Political Power
Economical Power
Catalan/Regional Nationalism
Spanish/State Nationalism
Beginning 19th Cent. Catalan Cultural Movement (Catalanism Awake)
During 19th Barcelona becomes the Most Industrialized and Populated City in Spain
End 19th Cent. Catalanism turns into a Political Movement (Catalan Nationalism)
Centralized State
Decentralized State
(Self-Governement)
Spain (and thus Catalonia) is Neutral
Left-Wing
Catalan
Nationalists
Working
Class
Rif War (Morocco)
The Last Territory
of the 'Old' Spanish Empire
+
No Chance for Catalan Self-Government
The Problems of the Spanish Republic 1931-1936
1.- Church: Privileges vs. Republic
2.-Social: Anarchists vs. Republic
3.- Regional: Catalonia & the Basque Country
4.-Militar: Army vs. Republic
5.-Agrarian: Landowners vs. Peasants & Republic
www.joanesculies.com
Full transcript