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Rational on Teaching Writing

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Stephanie Cheng

on 11 May 2013

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Transcript of Rational on Teaching Writing

What do I Know? Curriculum Standard Assessment, Feedback & Reporting Diversity literacy needs ESL & Dyslexia Teaching strategies Writing Processes and Strategies What all Children will Learn? Rationale on Teaching Writing How do we assess students' writing? How to teach ESLs and Dyslexia in Writing? The History of Writing Stephanie Cheng Various styles of Writing Narrative - a narrative tells a story Structure of a Narrative
Orientation - What/ Who, Where and When
Complication
Series of events
Resolution Recount - A recount tells what happened Structure of a recount
Background information about who, where and when.
Series of events in chronological order
Personal expressions of attitude and feelings Explanation - An explanation makes clear how or why things are as they are, or how things works. Structure of an explanation
A general statement
A series of events in chronological order.
Concluding statement Procedure - A procedure tells how to do something. Structure of a procedure
Opening statement of goal or aim
Materials required listed in order of use
Series of steps listed in chronological order Response - A Response is used to summarise, analyse and respond to literary texts. A response may be review or a personal response. Structure of a review
Context- background information on the text.
Description of the text (including characters and plot).
Concluding statement (judgement, opinion or recommendation).
Structure of a Personal Response
Context- background information on the text.
Personal opinion and /or reaction. Discussion - A Discussion presents information and opinions about more than one side of an issues. Structure of a Discussion
Opening statement presenting the issue
Arguments or evidence for different points of view
Concluding recommendation Information Report - An Information report is used to resent information about something. It describes an entire class of things, whether natural or made. Structure of an information Report
Opening general definition or classification.
Sequence of related statements about the topic
Concluding statement Persuasive Text Structure of a Persuasive Text
Introduction - opening statement and your belief or opinion.
Reason One and proof
Reason Two and proof
Reason Three and proof
Conclusion- Restate your opinion, give a recommendation. - A Persuasive writing is trying to convince for your opinion. Teaching students to become effective, lifelong writers cannot be simplified into one method or a set of steps; the act of writing consist of multiple processes, strategies and conventions that interview and overlap. Teachers need to be explicit in demonstrating and talking to students about what effective writers do. Teachers also need to provide opportunities for students to apply new understandings in new understandings in their own authentic writing contexts.

A Successful writing program requires a daily block of time, with time allocated for explicit instruction on selected aspects of writing, time for students to receive and provide feedback. To Describe To Entertain (Prose and Poetry) To Explain To Inquire To Instruct To Persuade To Recount To Socialise The Purpose on Writing What are the Writing Strategies? Predicting
Self-questioning
Creating Images
Determining Importance
Paraphrasing / Summarising
Connecting
Comparing
RE-reading
Synthesising
Sounding Out
Chunking
Using Visual Memory
Using Spelling Generalisations
Using Analogy
Using Meaning
Consulting an Authority
Using Memory Aids What are the Writing Processes? PLANING DRAFTING CONFERRING REFINING PUBLISHING Gathering ideas
Brainstorming
Reading
Discussing Sustained writing to produce a first version
Focusing on ideas Getting advice
Gathering feedback Taking another look at the writing
Making corrections
Changes Preparing the writing for presentation to an audience How to Teach Writing Processes and Strategies? Modeling Sharing Guiding Applying Using modeling to introduce writing processes allows teachers to articulate what is happening inside their hears, making the strategies used throughout the processes evident. It gives students and teachers opportunities to think through texts together. Sharing allows the teacher to continue to demonstrate the use of the selected writing processes. It give students the opportunity to use writing processes to compose a variety of texts. It involve the teacher providing scaffolds as students use the process. It is essential that students have opportunities to work independently and apply the writing processes. It is also important to encourage students to use writing processes when working in other learning areas. NAPLAN WRITING MARKING CRITERIA The control of multiple threads and relationships across the text, achieved through the use of referring words, ellipsis, text connectives, substitutions and word associations. Audience Text Structure Ideas Persuasive Devices Vocabulary Cohesion Paragraphing Sentence Structure Punctuation Spelling (0-6) (0-4) (0-5) (0-4) (0-5) (0-4) (0-3) (0-6) (0-5) (0-5) The writer’s capacity to orient, engage and persuade the reader The organisation of the structural components of a persuasive text
(introduction, body and conclusion) into an appropriate and effective text structure The selection, relevance and elaboration of ideas for a persuasive argument The use of a range of persuasive devices to enhance the writer’s position and persuade the reader The range and precision of contextually appropriate language choices. The segmenting of text into paragraphs that assists the reader to follow the line of argument The production of grammatically correct, structurally sound and meaningful sentences The use of correct and appropriate punctuation to aid the reading of the text The accuracy of spelling and the difficulty of the words used Following are the standard of curriculum we need students to be access and demonstrate in the year portfolio of learning writing:
*National English curriculum http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/English/Rationale
*AusVELS http://ausvels.vcaa.vic.edu.au/English/Curriculum/F-10
*Assessment Progress points: http://www.vcaa.vic.edu.au/Documents/auscurric/progressionpoints/AusVELS-EnglishProgressionPoints.pdf
Punctuation Text structure Vocabulary Spelling How to build students' knowledge and use of written conventions, such as spelling, grammar, punctuation, text structure and vocabulary? Learning to spell is part of learning to write. Writing provides the context for spelling development, as spelling is one of the tools a writer use to communicate effectively. Write gives spelling its context; without writing, spelling has no purpose and audience. Conventional spelling helps writers express themselves to a range of audiences in a way that is clearly understood. It is vital that students see the connection between spelling and being able to communicate effectively through writing. Students need to understand that adult will sometimes judge other people's intelligence and level of literacy on accuracy of their spelling- and this is why students need to use conventional spelling.
One of the best ways way to help students acquire spelling proficiency is to teach spelling within the context of everyday writing. Addressing individualise spelling needs during writing tasks is an effective way to individualise instruction instruction and teach at the point of need. However, a comprehensive approach to teaching spelling also needs to provide explicit teaching, frequent opportunities for authentic writing. Authentic writing allows students to practice and apply their new understanding.
Teaching spelling as part of writing and through explicit and systematic teaching , provides opportunities for students to investigate, discuss, practice and apply spelling knowledge and stratgies. It also allows them to learn the words they need to use in their writing, A combination of whole-class, small-group and individual approaches to teaching spelling will enable teachers to support a range of student needs. Grammar refers to the rules and systematic relationships that are used to organise a language and its meaning. Grammar is used to make meaning during reading, writing, speaking, listening and viewing.
Most students come to school having already acquired the basic syntactic, semantic and pragmatic elements of their how language through using oral language on a daily basis. In order for students to build on their understandings and use of grammar, it is important that teachers.
It is important to link the teaching of grammar to the teaching of text forms and to students’ needs. This is achieved through reading and discussing a wide range of texts and having students write for authentic purposes. Teaching grammar through writing involves explicit teaching through mini-lesson, providing frequent opportunities to investigate and analyse texts, and giving students daily opportunities to practice and apply new understandings.
It is not necessary for students to learn technical grammatical terms for them to communicate effectively and efficiently. However, students benefit from knowing the metalanguage associated with the functions of language. For example, students need to be able to use the word ‘noun’, articulate its use and use a noun correctly during their own writing. Grammar Punctuation is the use of certain marks to break words into groups to clarify the meaning and make the writing readable. It is important to expose students to a range of texts at all phases of development, and to draw their attention to punctuation. Give students time to investigate and analyse the use of punctuation, as this helps them to discover how it is used, Encourage students to apply their discoveries about punctuation when they are creating their own texts. Following are the types of punctuation we are using in the classroom: Capital Letters Full Stops Question Marks Exclamation Marks Commas Apostrophes Quotation Marks Colons Semi-Colons Hyphens Dashes Brackets Ellipses The successful implementation of a student-centred approach to spelling depends on the follow considerations.
1, select formats and create students journals
* have a go * word shapes *Words I'm learning * my word collection * Look, say, cover, visuallise, write, check
2. Establish Routines
* Collect words to learn * Selecting and transferring words * Learning new words
3. Introduce a Daily process.
*Select new words and write in list * someone to check *Lean word with activities * Organise a test on your words * Write down in 'Words that I know' Developing and refinging the following knowledge will help students to make decision when they are composing text.
1. Parts of speech
It is possible to learn a language without knowing the parts of speech, but knowing about the parts of speech makes things easier.
*noun *Verb * Adjective * Adverb * Pronoun * Preposition * Conjunction * Interjection * Article
2, Relationship between parts of speech
*noun/Pronoun agreement * subject/verb agreement * Tense * Person Sentences structure
developing and refining the following understanding will help students decide which sentences to use when composing text.
1, Different Types of sentences
*statement * question *command *exclamation
2. sentences structure
3. sentences maniulate
*Sentence Combining
*sentences expanding * Sentences reducing * sentences transforming
Paragraphs and text structure when they composing whole text.
1. Grouping related information
2. Writing a cohesive paragraph
* Topic sentences * supporting sentences * concluding sentences * paragraph layout
3. Writing cohesive paragraphs to compose a coherent text.
It is important for student to understand that different sentences connectors or conjunctions are used to link and organise information:
* Compare and contrast *Cause and effect *problem and solution
*Listing The national English curriculum mandates that students learning to read are taught the letter-sound relationships from their first year of school, a skill that has been missing in some classrooms. It brings literature back into primary schools, and students will again learn grammar and how it can improve their own writing.
The curriculum takes a more traditional view of literature than has been apparent in some states in the past decade or so. While non-print texts are included in the curriculum, the types of written material to be studied is divided into literary and non-literary texts.
"Literary texts are valued for their aesthetic qualities and cultural significance and include multimodal as well as print forms," it says. "The term `literature' describes those texts that are recognised as having the potential to promote aesthetic, ethical and imaginative learning experiences. Literary texts include drama, poetry, stories, speeches and biographies. They can be fiction or nonfiction.
"Non-literary texts achieve a variety of purposes such as recounting, instructing, critiquing, reviewing and explaining. They are drawn from community, vocational and academic contexts."
The English course is divided into three strands of language, literature and literacy, and for each year of school the curriculum sets out the minimum that students should learn.
Teachers use the achievement standards, at the end of a period of teaching, to make on-balance judgments about the quality of learning demonstrated by the students – that is, whether they have achieved below, at or above the standard. To make these judgments, teachers draw on assessment data that they have collected as evidence during the course of the teaching period. These judgments about the quality of learning are one source of feedback to students and their parents and inform formal reporting processes. If a teacher judges that a student’s achievement is below the expected standard, this suggests that the teaching programs and practice should be reviewed to better assist individual students in their learning in the future. It also suggests that additional support and targeted teaching will be needed to ensure that the student does not fall behind.

Marilyn, Friend of Indiana University suggests a seven step approach to considering adaptations to
meet diverse learning needs in a strategy she calls INCLUDE. They are:
STEP 1: Identify classroom environmental, curricular, and instructional demands.
STEP 2: Note student strengths and needs.
STEP 3: Check for potential areas of student success.
STEP 4: Look for potential problem areas.
STEP 5: Use information gathered to brainstorm instructional adaptations.
STEP 6: Decide which adaptations to implement.
STEP 7: Evaluate student progress.
The Australian Curriculum is shaped by the propositions that each student can learn and that the needs of every student are important. The flexibility offered by the Australian Curriculum enables teachers to plan rigorous, relevant and engaging learning and assessment experiences for all students. Most diverse learning needs can be met in the general classroom when two guidelines are kept in mind by the classroom teacher: (1) Student performance is the result of interaction between the
student and the instructional environment and (2) teachers can reasonably accommodate most
student needs after analyzing student learning needs and the demands of the instructional
environment.
Reference:
Douglas D. Christensen (1996) <http://www.nebraskasocialstudies.org/pdf/tsfswdln.pdf>

Teachers can help to overcome grammar, sentence structure and punctuation problems by allowing the student to write the first draft of an assignment without any concern to the structure, allowing the student to focus on content only. The teacher can work with the student to add in proper punctuation, capitalization and work on sentence structure once the information is on the paper. In other words, although many students are able to incorporate these skills into their writing during all the phases, students with dyslexia may find that focusing on the grammar hinders their ability to develop ideas. By putting aside the need for grammar and sentence structure, the teacher breaks the assignment into parts, putting organization and sequencing of content first. Dyslexia students ESL students Three key teaching strategies are essential for the ESL literacy classroom: scaffolding, recycling and spiraling. These strategies do not act in isolation
Scaffolding is an important strategy that effective ESL literacy instructors use in the classroom.
Think of a building under construction. Imagine the scaffolding. Scaffolding is the structure around the building that supports the workers and allows them special and safe access to the building.
Recycling is an important part of theme teaching. Learners need time to practice skills so they can reach their goals.
Recycling and spiraling may seem to be very similar. The big difference is that spiraling is a longer-term endeavor - over the course of a semester or over the course of several semesters - where outcomes are revisited. Learners cannot achieve an outcome that reads, "Write simple, short texts" in the space of a week.
I also suggest the Picture writing for students before they go on writing. It helps them to demonstrating and engaging activities.
Following are the little link for it:
http://www.picturingwriting.org/combined.html
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