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Boud and Experiential Learning
Transcript of Boud and Experiential Learning
For the profile of David Boud, go to his page at http://cfsites1.uts.edu.au/fass/staff/listing/details.cfm?StaffId=2530 at the University of Technology Sydney) Boud’s Model of Learning (1994) This model covers three stages of engagement in a learning event:
1. Activities and experiences prior to the event
2. Those during the event
3. Those which occur subsequently “Experience occurs continuously because the interaction of live creature and environing condition is involved in the very process of living”.
Learning from the experience is an act of meaning making mediated through communication. What is Reflection? Boud defines reflection as:
“a process of turning experience into learning”, which is, “taking the unprocessed, raw material of experience and engaging with it to make sense of what has occurred” (Boud, 2001)
“those intellectual and affective activities in which individuals engage to explore their experiences in order to lead to new understandings and appreciations.” (Boud, Keogh and Walker, 1985) Three types of Reflection Boud categorizes reflection into three types (Boud, 2001):
1. Reflection in anticipation of events
2. Reflection in the midst of action
3. Reflection after events Boud’s Two Assumptions The Basic Assumption
Learning is always grounded/rooted in prior experience and that any attempt to promote new learning must consider that experience in some way. (Boud, 1994, 2001)
The Second Assumption
The process of learning from experience is necessarily an active one involving learners in engaging with and intervening in the events of which they are part. (Boud, 1994, 2001) Example of Boud’s Application of
Reflection to Learning Boud (2001) examines journal writing in terms of how it enhances an individual’s learning.
Writing journals helps their writers to keep records of events and experiences and also process and re-form those events and experiences
Writing journals can play an important role in all of the three types of reflection.
Inhibitors: Pressure from journal readers’ prospects and expectations; the tension between assessment of learning and reflection that requires the writer to “focus on uncertainty, on perplexing events, of exploration without necessarily knowing where it will lead.” Prior to the Event The focus is placed on the learner, the milieu, and skills/strategies
What is already available to, or what is missing from the learner, the milieu and the learner’s skills and strategies before the actual learning activities start? In the Midst of the Event Learners guide themselves by noticing, intervening, and reflection-in-action through the milieu in accordance with their intents and what is available for them to use in this process.
Noticing: An act of becoming aware of what is happening in and around oneself
Intervening: Any action taken by the learner within the learning situation affecting the learning milieu or the learner.
Reflection-in-action: The process of working with noticing and intervening to interpret events and the effects of one's interventions. Following the Event Much important learning can occur through the following three elements (See also Boud, Keogh, and Walker, 1985, 1996):
1. Return to experience: Mentally revisiting and vividly portraying the focus experience
2. Attending to feelings: Focusing on the feelings and emotions which are/were present. People need to work through any negative feelings that have arisen and eventually set those aside while retaining and enhancing the positive feelings. If the negative feelings are not addressed, learning can be blocked.
3. Re-evaluate the experience: Using the experience as a way of getting the learner ready for new experiences and thus new learning. Four important activities are suggested for the re-evaluation. Four Activities in the Re-evaluation 1. Association: Relating of new information to that which is already known
2. Integration: Seeking relationships between the new and old information
3. Validation: Determining the authenticity for the learner of the ideas and feelings which have resulted
4. Appropriation: Making knowledge one’s own, a part of one’s normal ways of operating Critique Boud recognizes the importance of context (e.g. social, cultural) in shaping an individual’s experience (Boud and Walker, 1991; Boud 1994).
However, for example, Fenwick (2003) argues that context addressed by Boud and Walker (1991) is a “static space” (p. 80) and that they do not consider how power relations play out through social constructs such as language and culture. References Boud, D. (1994). Conceptualising learning from experience: Developing a model for facilitation. In Hyams, M., Armstrong, J., & Anderson, E. (Eds.). (1994). the 35th Adult Education Research Conference Proceedings (49-54): Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee.
Boud, D. (2001). Using journal writing to enhance reflective practice. In L. M. English & M. A. Gillen (Eds.), Promoting Journal Writing in Adult Education. New Directions in Adult and Continuing Education No. 90. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Boud, D., Cohen, R., & Walker, D. (1993). Using experience for learning. Bristol, PA: SHRE and Open University Press.
Boud, D., Keogh, R., and Walker, D. (1985). Reflection: Turning experience into learning. New York: Nichols.
Boud,D., Keogh, R., and Walker, D. (1996). Promoting reflection in learning: A model. In R. Edwards, A. Hanson, & P. Raggatt (Eds.), Boundaries of adult learning. London: Routledge.
Boud, D. and Walker, D.(1991). Experience and learning: Reflection at work. Geelong, Victoria: Deakin University Press.
Dewey, J. (1934). Art as experience. New York: Capricorn Books.
Fenwick, T. (2003). Learning through experience: Troubling orthodoxies and intersecting questions. Malabar, FL: Krieger.
Heron, J. (1989). The Facilitators' Handbook. East Brunswick, N. J.: Nichols.
Heron, J. (1993). Group Facilitation: Theories and Models for Practice. East Brunswick, N. J.: Nichols.
Jarvis, P. (1987). Adult Learning in the Social Context. London: Croom Helm.
Kolb, D. (1984). Experiential learning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Schön, D. A. (1983). The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action. New York: Basic Books.
Schön, D. A. (1987). Educating the Reflective Practitioner. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.