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The Failure of Industrial Revolution in Spain
Transcript of The Failure of Industrial Revolution in Spain
Population growth in Western Europe is based on three approaches:
XI - XIV depressions are produced
XIV-XVI continue depressions
XVI-XVII sustainable and cumulative population growth occurs.
Cultivation of new plants such as corn and potatoes.
1717 to 1768. The growth of the population, life expectancy is very short. First half of XVIII. Growth accelerates in the second half but decreases.
With Peace of Utrecht and Rastatt (1713-1714), most of its European losses are solved.
S. XVIII. Increases population and wealth due to administrative improvements.
In Spain there is lack of agricultural revolution due to the imbalance between men and resources.
Spain has a dual economy by economic backwardness and underdevelopment.
First capitalist signs are:
Confiscation of land (agricultural production)
Mechanization of the cotton industry
Blast furnaces, use of iron
1832. Steam power. Modern steel procedures.
Chapter 1. Increasing the population a false trail
The spanish state benefited from the performance of the colonies by the flow of the colonial administration and customs duties.
Between S. XVIII-XIX, remittances increase and decrease of Indian customs revenues.
Loss of coloniasproduce the collapse of the Treasury. The bank was subject to cover the debt of the Treasury, currency depreciation and strong inflationary pressures.
1870. Pi. Second president of the First Republic.
1874 Bank of Spain. Monopoly emission.
1833-1840. First Carlist War. The Rothschied cede the territory of Almaden
1829 commercial code occurs. All credit societies, are subordinate to the commercial court, unless the issuing banks.
1852. Agricultural Boom.
1856. The Cortes approve the bills issuing banks and credit societies law.
1855 Railway Act.
1856-1864. Increased circulation of banknotes. The railway is built at the expense of industrial sector, which is overdue.
Foreign capital helps build the railway but it was not easy exploitation due to lack of transport and fuel.
Problem: Too little railway to industry. Mapping Network.
1866. Crisis. Caused mainly by rail bankruptcy.
Chapter 2. External debt, foreign capital and railways.
• Nationalization estate market. It occurs to repay the excessive amount of debt outstanding.
• Land reform is caused by fiscal and political motivations.
• 1808 First confiscation. Carlos III, in order to settle the loans meet the interests of vouchers yreducir the number of them.
• 1820. Second confiscation. With the constitutional triennium. Fin was that the assets of the development was regular.
• 1836 Third confiscation. Mendizabal. Consolidate public finances and secure the throne to Elizabeth II.
• Abolition of the feudal regime affected mainly farmers and strengthening the financial system of the lords.
• With the seizure increased farmland occurs.
• Since 1880 a large trans-oceanic and trans competition because Spain has low yields and high costs.
• National Economic Congress 1888 in Barcelona. Crisis caused by the lack of demand and accumulation of stocks.
• cultivating new irrigation products such as orange and sugar beet occurs.
• 1895. High protectionism.
Chapter 3. Confiscation soil
Laura Noriega Monteagudo
In 1868 the Treasury appears with a large deficit as already mentioned above, this leads to high inflation and begins to need other ways like lead.
Underground development is promoted over the years by transferring to dealers operating capacity. Due to the high costs of exploitation of subsoil flock to foreign capital. On the other hand, domestic demand is absent so this expanding market are based on external demand and foreign trade. To facilitate this, we have to note that Spain was rich in lead, zinc and copper.
The extraction of lead:
By having a variety of uses was highly coveted in the international market, besides being new in the nineteenth century. It was mined in Spain in Myrtles and Falset, but it was not until 1817 that the free play of supply and demand allow three years later (1820) the permit private benefit of any mines.
Mining and metallurgy of lead got very good yields, becoming an important factor capitalization. But this boom had zero leverage, meaning that no increased demand for consumer goods (like textiles), or take off in other sectors.
The main reason was poor planning that was to allow the operation to C / P. The leasing company has to capitalize immediately, so does the rational exploitation rapidly depleting mines and not making optimal use of these long-term.
Therefore there was a very important development as it should favoring the economy.
A level of exports, Spain becomes the world's largest exporter, thanks largely to the railway network which was driven years ago and we have already spoken.
The scale of evolution begins in Sierra Morena, becoming in turn Jaén, Córdoba and Murcia in the most productive mines of the peninsula, Myrtle turn during his state control also offered high yields; but again, with the case of Sierra Morena and poor national exploitation, shows that foreign investment was able to better exploit the mine to the state.
Extraction of Copper:
Copper demand increases during this time due to electrical developments, which becomes another material that during this time will have a huge increase in demand and so once again, Spain has become one of the leading exporters.
Rio Tinto mines as they appear and Almaden, poorly managed state-again but will become a huge increase in copper exports.
Moreover, the Iron Cobra also important thanks to production in Vizcaya and the Basque Country in general.
In short, the extraction and export of metals in Spain will provide an economic important increase in the time necessary, considering the little industrial development and economic problems of previous years.
Extraction of Lead
Extraction of Copper
In 1825, after the loss of the colonies and thus a decrease of Spanish gold and silver manufactures were sorely needed. For the development of this energy in the form of fuel was essential. Without energy, any attempt to industrialization was impossible, nor the maintenance of population growth and competitiveness with other nations in the face of production and exports.
It is in 1825 when more attention to the galleries that coal with the law this year is provided. Thanks to having removed these obstacles, start and grow produce on a large scale.
During the following years several attempts appear to promote and mobilize the Asturian coal. Some with little fruit and others carried out little benefit for the country. One powered by Alejandro Aguado, who scored coal concessions in the central basin of the principality.
Since mid-19-1906 appear companies like d'Eichtal who become domestic producers of coal. However it was difficult to profit from these mines and eventually gave way to the delivery of the business to foreign capital. Again losing business in the hands of outsiders. We can then speak of a possible spoliation of Spanish resources probably founded in mismanagement in general.
THE DIFFICULTIES OF THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY
Iron is the metal of the industrialization.
More advantages than wood.
The Vasc Country industry was the most important one.
THE VASC INDUSTRY
“San Francisco” factory is the most important of Spain.
Increase in the production (65%).
Very important the exports.
THE CATALAN COTTON INDUSTRY
In 1768 appear the first cotton factorys in Cataluña.
The invention of the mule-jennies.
The britain machines produced a lot more than the spanish ones.
The industrial evolution has changed our way of life. It was started in Great Britain
and it was expanded all around europe. Also, it was a very hard situation for the
Workers with a lot of negative consecuences. Workers claim better conditions and
a reduction of the laboral hours. We can conclude that the industrial revolution in
Spain it was a failure.