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Transcript of L'Arche Communities
Models of Disability
The Moral Model
Disability is directly linked to sin and evil. (Romel Mackelprang; Richard Salsgiver, 1999)
Focus is on transformation as a result of a particular way of life lived in relation to the presence and power of “spirit” – conceived as an agency or “higher power” that is transcendent to the self (Hryniuk, 2010)
Model integrates a compelling idea that you help others live mutually beneficial lives in a community and therefore reach new perceptions of self
Meaning of Spirit
To be spiritual is a fundamental dimension of the human person
Indicative of desire and capacity of human person to seek ultimate meaning and value in a responsive relationship through a particular way of life or ‘spirituality’
Spirit is ”specifically human capacity to experience, be conscious of, and relate to a dimension of power and meaning transcendent to the world of sensory reality expressed in the particularirities of a given historical and social context, and leading toward action congruent with this meaning" (Thayer, 1985)
Ewert Cousins who says:
Focuses on that inner dimension of the person called by certain traditions “the apirit”. This spiritual core is the deepdst centre of the person. It is here that the person is open to the transcendent dimension; it is here that the person expreineces ultimate reality. (Cousins, 1987)
Began in 1964, Trosly-Breuil, France
Name symbolizing Noah’s Ark
Wanted to “do something” for the men who he met in the asylums of Northern France and came to be experienced as a simple sharing of life with them
More than 135 communities in 36 countries on 6 continents.
Vision, Mission, & Values
: We see a world where everyone has a place of true belonding and a contribution to make, especially those who seem to be weaker and more vulnerable. We are all-each one of us-on a journey to become more fully human
: To hnour, protect, and empower people who have an intellectual disability through creating homes and communities of love and friendship
: Community, Compassion, Transformation, Service, Faith, Justice
A L'Arche Community: http://www.larche.ca/en/multimedia/larche/what_makes_a_community
Medical or Individual Model
"Focus is on bodily ‘abnormality’, disorder or deficiency, and the way in which this in turn ‘causes’ some degree of ‘disability’ or functional limitation.” (Barnes, Mercer, Shakespeare, 1999)
“Recommended solution lies in curative and rehabilitative medical intervention, with an increasing involvement of allied health practitioners, psychologists, and educationalists. This ‘expert’ defines and individual’s needs and how they should be met.” (Barnes, Mercer, Shakespeare, 1999)
Accepts and reinforces the medical model…that disability is located in individual minds and bodies and…it can be cured.” (Withers, 2012)
This model adds a “moral element” to thoughts about disability. (Rummery, 2002)
It is society that disabled people with impairments (Barnes, Mercer, Shakespeare, 1999)
“Totality of disabling environments” (Oliver, 2004)
“In our view it is society which disables physically impaired people. Disability is something imposed on top of our impairments by the way we are unnecessarily isolated and excluded from full participation in society. Disabled people are therefore an oppressed group in society” (Union of the Physically Impaired Against Segregation (UPIAS), 1976)
Feminist critique: avoids discussion of disabled people’s subjective experience or integration of lessons drawn from that experience into social model theory (Marks, 1999)
Multi-Provider, Welfare Pluralism, Community Care Model
Community Care refers to the care of individuals within the community as an alternative to institutional or long-stay residential care (Jary and Jary, 1991)
Community care has sought to improve the well-being of publicly dependent disabled people by providing for their support in dispersed, small-scale residential settings (Parker, 1991)
The policy of community care is essentially the humanization of established modes of social support (Gleeson, 1999)
Community care is undertakes in networks of small, dispersed residential units which aim to provide ‘socially valorised’ living settings for service-dependent people (Wolfensberger, 1987; Gleeson, 1999)
Focuses on “human and citizenship rights and ensures that disabled people have equal access to these rights” (Withers, 2012)
Conceptualizes disabled people as a minority group entitled to all of the same rights and freedoms as non-disabled people.
Defines disability as a characteristic, or a perceived characteristic, for which an individual is treated unequally in society (Diller, 2000)
Synthesizes feminist, anti-racist, anti-capitalist, and postmodern theory
“Defines disability as a social construction used as an oppressive tool to penalize and stigmatize those of us who deviate from the (arbitrary) norm.” (Withers, 2012)
Spirituality at L'Arche
Inclusive of all dimensions of human life which actualize the capacity to integrate one’s relations with self, others, and the world in the light of a transcendent horizon of meaning and value. (Hryniuk, 2010)
Encompasses both religious & non-religious fundamentals