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Natural Gas

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Youssef Hegazy

on 31 May 2013

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Transcript of Natural Gas

Natural Gas Introduction -natural gas is an important part of the world's supply of energy and is a part of our daily lives as we breathe it everyday in the form of oxygen
-is one of the cleanest, safest, and most useful of all energy sources
- unfortunately it is non-renewable as it comes from fossil fuels which take millions of years to form
-there are many misconceptions about natural gas
-for example when we fuel our car, we put 'gas' in it, but the gasoline that goes into your vehicle, while a fossil fuel itself, is very different from natural gas, and the 'gas' in a common barbecue is actually propane, which, while closely associated and usually found in natural gas, is not really a natural gas
-many characteristics of natural gas make it unique, including the fact that it is colourless, odourless, and shapeless in its purest form Location -Canada is fortunate to have crude oil and natural gas resources under parts of every province and territory and off each of our eastern, western and northern coasts.
- Canada’s largest source of oil and gas is the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB), which covers north-eastern British Columbia, most of Alberta, southern Saskatchewan, and the south western tip of Manitoba
-the area in British Columbia is mountainous while Alberta’s, Saskatchewan’s, and Manitoba’s land is flat, hence they are called the 3 Prairie Provinces
-the WCSB has every kind of oil and gas resource, including: natural gas (mixture of gases, primarily methane), conventional crude oil (crude oil recoverable from a well using standard production methods), heavy oil (dense, viscous oil, with a high amount of bitumen, that is difficult to extract with conventional techniques and is more costly to refine), and oil sands ( a complicated mixture of sand, water and clay trapping very heavy oil known as bitumen). History -natural gas is nothing new, as most of the natural gas that is brought out from underground is millions and millions of years old
- it was not until recently that methods for obtaining this gas, bringing it to the surface, and putting it to use were developed.
-back then natural gas was somewhat of a mystery to man , as sometimes lightning strikes would ignite natural gas that was escaping from under the earth's crust creating a fire coming from the earth, burning the natural gas as it came out from underground
-this confused most early civilizations, and were the root of much myth and superstition
-one of the most famous of these types of flames was found in ancient Greece, on Mount Parnassus approximately 1000 B.C.
- a goat herdsman came across what looked like a 'burning spring', a flame rising from a fissure in the rock.
-the Greeks, believing it to be of divine origin, built a temple on the flame housing a priestess who was known as the Oracle of Delphi, giving out prophecies she claimed were inspired by the flame.
-these types of springs became prominent in the religions of India, Greece, and Persia
-it wasn't until about 500 B.C. that the Chinese discovered the potential to use these fires to their advantage.
-finding places where gas was seeping to the surface, the Chinese made crude pipelines out of bamboo shoots to transport the gas, where it was used to boil sea water, separating the salt and making it drinkable.
-Britain was the first country to commercialize the use of natural gas at around 1785, natural gas produced from coal was used to light houses, as well as streetlights Exploration -exploration for natural gas usually begins with geologists examining the surface structure of the earth, and determining areas where it is geologically likely that petroleum or gas deposits might exist
-it was discovered in the mid 1800s that ‘anticlinal slopes’ had a particularly increased chance of containing petroleum or gas deposits
-these anticlinal slopes are areas where the earth has folded up on itself, forming the dome shape that is similiar a great number of reservoirs
-by surveying and mapping the surface and sub-surface characteristics of a certain area, the geologist can have an educated guess on which areas are most likely to contain a petroleum or natural gas reservoir
-they had many tools that they can use to do so, from the outcroppings of rocks on the surface or in valleys and gorges, to the geologic information attained from the rock cuttings and samples obtained from the digging of irrigation ditches, water wells, and other oil and gas wells
-geologists would combine this information to make inferences as to the fluid content, porosity, permeability, age, and formation sequence of the rocks underneath the surface of a particular area
-once the geologists have determined an area where it is geologically possible for a natural gas or petroleum formation to exist, further tests can be performed to gain more detailed data about the potential reservoir area
-these tests (usually performed by geophysicists) allow for the more accurate mapping of underground formations, most notably formations that are commonly associated with natural gas and petroleum reservoirs Extraction -once a potential natural gas deposit has been located by a team of exploration geologists and geophysicists, it is up to a team of drilling experts to dig down to where the natural gas is thought to exist
-determining whether to drill a well depends on a variety of factors, including the economic potential of the hoped-for natural gas reservoir as it costs a lot of money for exploration and production companies to search and drill for natural gas, as there is always the chance that no natural gas will be found
-the exact placement of the drill site depends on many factors as well, including the nature of the potential formation to be drilled, the characteristics of the subsurface geology, and the depth and size of the target deposit
-after the geophysical team identifies the most desirable location for a well,the drilling company must complete all the required steps so that it can legally drill in that area
-this usually involves securing permits for the drilling operations, establishment of a legal arrangement to allow the natural gas company to extract and sell the resources under a given area of land, and a design for gathering lines that will connect the well to the pipeline.
-if the new well, once drilled, does in fact come in contact with natural gas deposits, it is developed to allow for the extraction of this natural gas, and is termed a 'development' or 'productive' well, it may be completed to facilitate its production of natural gas.
-but if the exploration team was wrong in its estimation of the existence of a marketable quantity of natural gas at a wellsite, the well is termed a 'dry well', and no production occurs Processing -raw natural gas comes from three types of wells: oil wells, gas wells, and condensate wells
-natural gas that comes from oil wells is usually called 'associated gas' as it can exist separate from oil in the formation (free gas), or dissolved in the crude oil (dissolved gas)
-natural gas from gas and condensate wells, in which there is little or no crude oil, is termed 'nonassociated gas' because gas wells typically produce raw natural gas by itself, while condensate wells produce free natural gas along with a semi-liquid hydrocarbon condensate
-natural gas processing consists of separating all of the various hydrocarbons and fluids from the pure natural gas like ethan and propane, to produce 'pipeline quality' dry natural gas Oil Removal -the separation of natural gas from oil is most often done using equipment installed at or near the wellhead
-In many cases, natural gas is dissolved in oil underground primarily due to the pressure that the formation is under
-when this natural gas and oil is produced, it is possible that it will separate on its own, simply due to decreased pressure
-in these cases, separation of oil and gas is relatively easy, and the two hydrocarbons are sent separate ways
-for further processing a conventional separator which is made up of a simple closed tank, where the force of gravity serves to separate the heavier liquids like oil, and the lighter gases, like natural gas, is used
-in certain instances, the Low-Temperature Separator (LTX) is used
- it is usually used for wells producing high pressure gas along with light crude oil or condensate Water Removal -most of the liquid, free water associated with extracted natural gas is removed by simple separation methods at or near the wellhead
-however, the removal of the water vapour that exists in solution in natural gas requires a more complex treatment that consists of 'dehydrating' the natural gas, which usually involves one of two processes: either absorption, or adsorption
-absorption occurs when the water vapor is taken out by a dehydrating agent, and adsorption occurs when the water vapor is condensed and collected on the surface. Conclusion - in conclusion, we must use natural gas wisely because it is a very valuable energy source to not only Canada, but to the world -if it is used improperly, the world would have one less energy source to depend on
-after all, most of the energy sources are non-renewable and must be used wisely and when necessary Transportation -the transportation system for natural gas consists of a complex network of pipelines, designed to quickly and efficiently transport natural gas from its origin, to areas of high natural gas demand
- there are three major types of pipelines along the transportation route: the gathering system, the interstate pipeline system, and the distribution system
-the gathering system is made up of low pressure, small diameter pipelines that transport raw natural gas from the wellhead to the processing plant
-if the natural gas from a particular well have high sulfur and carbon dioxide contents (sour gas), a specialized sour gas gathering pipe must be installed, as sour gas is corrosive
-pipelines can be characterized as interstate or intrastate
-interstate pipelines are similar to the interstate highway system: they carry natural gas across state boundaries, in some cases clear across the country The interstate natural gas pipeline network transports processed natural gas from processing plants in producing regions to those areas with high natural gas requirements, particularly large, populated urban areas. As can be seen, the pipeline network extends across the entire country Interstate Pipelines -transmission pipes can measure anywhere from 6 to 48 inches in diameter, depending on their function
-certain component pipe sections can even consist of small diameter pipe, as small as 0.5 inches in diameter, but it is usually used only in gathering and distribution systems
-mainline transmission pipes, the principle pipeline in a given system, are usually between 16 and 48 inches in diameter
-transmission pipelines are produced in steel mills, which are sometimes specialized to produce only pipeline
-there are two different production techniques, one for small diameter pipes and one for large diameter pipes
-for large diameter pipes, from 20 to 42 inches in diameter, the pipes are produced from sheets of metal which are folded into a tube shape, with the ends welded together to form a pipe section
-small diameter pipe, on the other hand, can be produced easily, as it involves heating a metal bar to very high temperatures, then punching a hole through the middle of the bar to produce a hollow tube
-both pipes are tested before being shipped out of the steel mill Trade & Usage of Natural Gas & Energy Trade Usage -Canada is an open economy, and taking advantage of its sizeable energy resources, it has become an important and reliable energy provider to the world
-in 2010, Canada exported $90.0 billion of energy, 98.4 percent of it was to the United States
-Canadian natural gas accounted for more than 87.7 percent of U.S. gas imports and held a 13.5 percent share of the overall U.S. market
-in 2010, Canada exported 92.4 cubic metres of natural gas, and only imported 22.53 cu m
-Canada also imported $40.3 billion of energy products, mostly crude oil, refined petroleum products and natural gas
Imports came from a range of countries that included the United States, Algeria, Norway and the United Kingdom -in 2010, Canadians had consumed 82.48 cubic metres of natural gas
-it is used for many things in our daily lives including : domestic uses like home heating and cooling, cooking, and fuel for transportation -as well as steam heat production, electrical generation, manufacturing and industrial uses like producing steel, glass, forest products, clothing, cement, fertilizer and petrochemicals, and creating polyethylene polymers, which is the most commonly used plastic Bibliography 1.http://www.naturalgas.org/overview/background.asp
19.http://www.proprofs.com/quiz-school/upload/yuiupload/1025742241.jpg Quiz! 1. What provinces/territories does the Western Sedimentary Basin cover?
a) Yukon, Northwest Territories, British Columbia, and Alberta
b) British Columbia, Sasketchewan, Alberta, and Manitoba
c) Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Quebec If you answered b), then you are correct!! 2. What type of wells does raw natural gas come from?
a) Oil wells, water wells, and vinegar wells
b) Condensate wells, gas wells, and petroleum wells
c) Gas wells, condensate wells, and oil wells If you answered c) then you are correct!! 3. What are the three major pipelines?
a) The intercontinental system, binary system, and gathering system
b) The distribution system, the gathering system, and interstate system
c)The intercountry system, sector system, and the transmission system If you answered b) then you are right!! Thank you for your attention!
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