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Chemical Bonding

Chem I
by

Jerica Briggs

on 6 February 2013

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Transcript of Chemical Bonding

Chemical
Bonding Definitions Noble Gases Review Day Chemical bond: An electrostatic attraction between two or more atoms
The electrostatic attraction occurs due to the movement of electrons. Valence electrons: the electrons occupying the outermost orbital of an atom
Only these electrons are involved in chemical bonds. Elements in the last group (column) on the periodic table.
Odorless and colorless.
Monatomic - They exist as single atoms.
Are very stable and do not bond with other atoms very much (inert). Work on review worksheets
Last chance to ask questions! Ionic Bonding: one atom gives up one or more e- to another atom creating an anion and a cation resulting in an electrostatic attraction Covalent Bonding: atoms share one or more e- equally. They have equal “custody” of the e-. Bell Ringer:
Draw the condensed electron configurations for Li, Mg, Al, C, P, S, and Br Non-Polar Covalent Bonds: a covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are shared equally by the bonded atoms, resulting in a balanced distribution of electrical charge Polar Covalent Bonds: a covalent bond in which the bonded atoms have an unequal attraction for the shared electrons The Role of Valence Electrons Bell Ringer:
Explain the difference between:
Covalent and ionic bonding
Polar and non-polar covalent bonding Electronegativity Do you notice a trend in the number of valence electrons each COLUMN of the Periodic Table has? Lewis Dot Structures Valence electrons are represented by dots Objectives Three Types of Bonds Cl Atoms with one to three valence electrons want to get rid of them. This means they have LOW electronegativity.

Atoms missing one to three valence electrons want to get them and fill their outer shell. This means they have HIGH electronegativity. Water is a POLAR covalent molecule because oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen and pulls the electrons closer to itself. Wrap Up!
If sodium agrees to give chlorine one of its valence electrons and they form a bond, what type of bond is it?

Homework: pg 177 - Section Review # 1-4 Be As Group 1 -


Group 2 -


Group 13 -


Group 14 - Group 15 -


Group 16 -


Group 17 -


Group 18 - X . X . . X . . . X . . . . X . . . . . X X X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wrap Up!
Why do we draw Lewis Dot Structures?

Homework: Bonding Worksheet Section 1 & 2 What's an atom gotta do
to be like a noble gas??? Finally some BONDING!!! Ionic bonding occurs between a metal and a non-metal: Criss Cross Method Cs + Te

Cs + Te

Cs Te Drawing Lewis Structures!!! When writing a formula with only two types of atoms, the least EN atom is written first. Bell Ringer:
Draw the Lewis Dot Structures for Li, Ga, C, P, Se, F, and Ar. Bell Ringer:
How many valence electrons do He, Sr,and S have? Pg 161 - Table of Electronegativities • Define what a chemical bond is and describe the different types of bonds
• Identify the valence electrons in an atom and diagram how they are involved in chemical bonding
• Use Lewis structures to model atomic bonding
• Use the criss-cross method to determine the ratios of atoms in an ionic bond
• Use electronegativities to determine the type of bonding between atoms
• Use Lewis structures to draw covalent molecules He Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn He 1s
Ne 2s 2p
Ar 3s 3p
Kr 4s 4p
Xe 5s 5p
Rn 6s 6p 2 2 2 2 2 2 6 6 6 6 6 They all have 8 valence e- except for He whose 1st energy level only needs 2 e- to be full. Cl - "I just need ONE MORE ELECTRON
and I'll be just like Ar!!!" Cl Na Ca Wrap Up!
Why would an atom want to be like a noble gas?

Homework: Bonding Worksheet Section 3 & 4 Bell Ringer:
Color your Periodic Table and label the categories Na Cl . . . . . . . . Na Cl + . . . . . . . . - Na + Cl NaCl (sodium chloride) + - Ca S . . . . . . . . Ca S +2 . . . . . . . . -2 Ca + S NaCl (sodium chloride) +2 -2 Na S . . . . . . . 2Na S + . . . . . . . . -2 2Na + S Na S (sodium sulfide) + -2 Na . 2 Sr Cl Al O Exit Pass!
What did you learn today? (Give me two or three :)

Homework: Bonding Worksheet Section 8 & 9 +1 -2 2 Al + O

Al + O

Al O

2Al + 3O Al O 3+ 2- 2 3 3+ 2- 2 3 If the subscripts can be reduced, do so.

Ca S CaS

Al P AlP 2 2 3 3 Bell Ringer:
Use the criss cross method to find the formulas for
Na - S, Ca - Cl, and K - I Cation: the positively charged ion
Always written 1st! Anion: the negatively charged ion
Written 2nd Anyone know any jokes about sodium?
Na..... Difference in EN Type of Bond 0 -> 0.5 Covalent 0.6 - > 1.6 Polar Covalent 1.6 - > 1.9 With metal - Ionic
Without metal - Polar Covalent 2.0 and above
(Or metal + nonmetal) Ionic Atoms ΔEN Type of Bond O & F 4.0-3.5 = 0.5 Covalent B & F C & O 4.0 - 2.0 = 2.0 3.5 - 2.5 = 1.0 Ionic Polar Covalent Na & Br H & F Covalent bonds are formed
between two or more non-metals. S + Cl

S + Cl

Cl S Cl

SCl 2- 1- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 N + O

N + O

N O

O N N O

N O 3- 2- . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 N + N

N N

N N

N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Wrap Up!
What is something you learned in another science class that you can relate to what you learned today?

Homework: Bonding Workshop 5, 6, & 7 Bell Ringer:
Which atom is more electronegative?
C or O, Al or Cl, Li or F?
What is the difference in EN for these atoms? Steps to Drawing Lewis Structures 1 2 3 4 Write a basic structure to see how the atoms are arranged in the molecule. The atom with the lower EN# is placed in the middle.
Most molecules are symmetrical Add up the total valence electrons for all the atoms in the molecule.

This is the total number of electrons you have to work with. Bond the surrounding atoms to the central atom with an e- pair (that is a line) and recalculate how many e- are left. Distribute e- around the surrounding atoms 1st to give them 8. The rest of the electrons go around the central atom in pairs. This can exceed 8 e-.

If the central atom is short 2e-, this suggests a double bond. If the central atom is short 4e-, this suggests a triple bond or two double bonds. 5 EXAMPLE 1
CCl F 1 2 3 4 Write a basic structure to see how the atoms are arranged in the molecule. The atom with the lower EN# is placed in the middle.
Most molecules are symmetrical Add up the total valence electrons for all the atoms in the molecule.

This is the total number of electrons you have to work with. Bond the surrounding atoms to the central atom with an e- pair (that is a line) and recalculate how many e- are left. Distribute e- around the surrounding atoms 1st to give them 8. The rest of the electrons go around the central atom in pairs. This can exceed 8 e-.

If the central atom is short 2e-, this suggests a double bond. If the central atom is short 4e-, this suggests a triple bond or two double bonds. 5 2 2 EXAMPLE 2
PCl 1 2 3 4 Write a basic structure to see how the atoms are arranged in the molecule. The atom with the lower EN# is placed in the middle.
Most molecules are symmetrical Add up the total valence electrons for all the atoms in the molecule.

This is the total number of electrons you have to work with. Bond the surrounding atoms to the central atom with an e- pair (that is a line) and recalculate how many e- are left. Distribute e- around the surrounding atoms 1st to give them 8. The rest of the electrons go around the central atom in pairs. This can exceed 8 e-.

If the central atom is short 2e-, this suggests a double bond. If the central atom is short 4e-, this suggests a triple bond or two double bonds. 5 3 EXAMPLE 3
CO 1 2 3 4 Write a basic structure to see how the atoms are arranged in the molecule. The atom with the lower EN# is placed in the middle.
Most molecules are symmetrical Add up the total valence electrons for all the atoms in the molecule.

This is the total number of electrons you have to work with. Bond the surrounding atoms to the central atom with an e- pair (that is a line) and recalculate how many e- are left. Distribute e- around the surrounding atoms 1st to give them 8. The rest of the electrons go around the central atom in pairs. This can exceed 8 e-.

If the central atom is short 2e-, this suggests a double bond. If the central atom is short 4e-, this suggests a triple bond or two double bonds. 5 2 Wrap Up!
Tell me one thing you learned today and one thing you are still confused about.

Homework: Lewis Structures Worksheet If you're not part of the solution, you're part of the precipitate. Ba dum CRASH... Ba dum CRASH... Octet Rule: atoms tend to bond so that each atom in the molecule possesses eight electrons in its outer shell Exam tomorrow!
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