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Nature vs. Nurture: Gender
Transcript of Nature vs. Nurture: Gender
The Nature of Gender
Our gender diversity is shaped biologically and culturally, but we have gender differences
The Nurture of Gender
we see culture's power in social expectation's that guide social expectations
Society assigns each of us a gender, the social category of male or female
refers to a cluster of prescribed actions. Specifically,
are defined as our expectations about the way men and women behave.
examples: standard for men to pick up checks, women to care for children
The diversity of gender roles across cultures indicate that culture has a big influence
-in hunter-gatherer societies boys and girls receive mostly same upbringing, while in agricultural societies women remain close to home
Women's social status has improved over time through their increased enrollment in schools, expanded suffrage, and assertiveness
The result is gender identity, our sense of being male or female
social learning theory
assumes children learn gender-linked behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
The gender schema theory combines the social learning theory with cognition
-in childhood, we form concepts or schemes
Through language, toys, dress, etc. social learning shapes gender schemas
These differences may be influenced genetically, by out differing sex chromosomes and, physiologically, from our differing concentrations of sex hormones
Males and females are variations on a single form, when we are conceived, our sex is determined after seven weeks. we receive 23 pairs of chromosomes and the 23rd pair is our sex chromosomes.
we receive an X chromosome from our mother and our father's chromosome is what determines our sex, if we get another X chromosome, we are girls. if our father gives us a Y chromosome, we are a boy.
the Y chromosome includes a single gene that makes the testes of a male produce a principal male hormone called, testosterone
The Nature of Gender
There are glandular malfunctions and hormone injections, which can effect a female embryo. if injected with testosterone while in the worm, these females can be born with masculine appearing genitals. these females later tend to act in more "tomboyish" ways than most girls, they dress and play in a way that a typical boy would. Some develop into lesbians, however some may become heterosexual.
Moreover, the hormones do not reverse their gender identity, they view themselves as girls still.
Early exposure to sex hormones thus affects us directly, in our biological appearance, and indirectly, by influencing social experiences that shape us.
Males can have genetic malfunctions when their testes are not normal, and when they are born without a penis or very small one. Some are raised to be a girl but soon they understand that they are actually a boy and remain a boy.
Reflections on Nature and Nurture
Our body due to natural selection and our genes provides us with certain abilities and where we are limits us on others
We are often rewarded for conforming to cultural expectations and punished when we don't
Gender roles shape us; men seek to be more macho and women to be kinder and gentler
We are not only formed by our genes but also by our choices
ex: celibacy defy our want to reproduce
"We are both the creatues and creators of our words"