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Transcript of Rome
Romulus and Remus
Why would early Romans build their
Latins, Greeks, and the Etruscans
Between 750-600 BCE colonies emerged in Italy
By 509 BCE the last of the tyrants and kings were driven out.
What type of gov't did the Romans adopt?
Republic- is a from of gov't in which power rests with citizens who have the right to vote for its leaders.
Class system in Rome
Wealthy land owners who held most of the power.
The common farmers, artisans, and merchants who made up the majority of the population.
Who do you think had the power and authority to rule?
Tribunes were elected members
that protected the rights of the plebeians.
12 Roman Tables
Roman Government Structure
Commanded the military
1 year terms
One consul could veto the other
Legislative and administrative power
Foreign and Domestic powers
In times of crisis the senate could appoint dictators
Only for 6 months
Roman Legions = 5,000 men
The Roman Republic Falls and the Empire Rises
What happened to the Roman Empire after the Punic Wars?
The Republic collapses 27 BCE
We're so rich it's ridiculous.
Luckily we have these slaves
that will work for free!!
If we wouldn't have lost that war,
we wouldn't be slaves.
Who would find it difficult to compete with these huge estates and free labor?
Small time farmers
Slaves made up 1/3 of the population
The savage beasts have their dens, but the men who bear arms and expose their lives for the safety of their country, enjoy nothing more in it but the air and light and wander from place to place with their wives and children.
Died 133 BCE
Died 121 BCE
Civil War- conflict between groups within the same country.
Since there was a government breakdown, what might be the next major breakdown in Rome?
The Roman Military
Who do you think these soldiers were loyal to and who would lead them?
Who was the most famous general in Rome's history?
A group of three rulers
Caesar was a strong leader and a genius at
Caesar conquered Gaul
How might these victories in Gaul
influence his legions and the people in Rome?
In 50 BCE Pompey order
Caesar come home to Rome at once!!!
Nah, I'm good bro!!
Caesar took his legions to the Rubicon River
"Crossing the Rubicon"
Why is that a phrase used today?
Pompey flees Rome
January 10, 49 BCE
Caesar followed Pompey and his army through Greece, Spain, and Egypt.
By 46 BCE Pompey had been assassinated in Egypt and Caesar returned home.
Granted citizenship to many people in the provinces.
Expanded the Senate
Increased pay for soldiers
Built new public buildings
Who might resent Caesar?
Senators led by Marcus Brutus stabbed Caesar 23 times in the senate house!!
Beginnings of an Empire
3 of Caesar's supporters banded together to seize power and kill Caesar's assassins.
Octavian made Lepidus retire and Octavian
became enemies with Mark Antony
What do you think Mark Antony did?
What would this lead to?
Mark Antony and Cleopatra would later commit
Octavian became known as Augustus or "exalted one"
How was Rome able to do this?
Efficient Government and able rulers
Augustus set up the civil service
What is the civil service?
The Pax Romana
(27 BC - 180 AD)
During the Pax Romana period there were 200 years of peace within Rome. Results of the Pax Romana:
Extended borders to Asia Minor and secured frontiers.
Order and good government.
Prosperity. They Improved harbors, cleared forests, drained swamps, and turned unused land into farms.
Roads were built.
Products from all over the empire flowed into Rome.
They built cities and expanded old ones.
Roman power spread to Judea in 6 CE, home of the Jews.
What is the Jewish religion called and what's another term used to describe them?
Born around 4 BCE - 0 CE in Bethlehem
He worked as a carpenter
Did good works
Followed Jewish tradition
One God and the 10 Commandments
Gospels- First 4 books of the New Testament
Who was Jesus' message appealing to?
You will be crucified on the cross!
3 days after his death he appeared
Saul or Paul
Paul taught the word of God and
taught about Jesus.
Why was he able to travel so easily and
easily spread that word of Jesus?
Messiah or savior
Wailing Wall- holiest Jewish shrine.
Jewish Rebellion 70-132 CE
Diaspora-dispersal of the Jews.
Name all that the reasons why Christianity grew.
embraced all people - men and women, enslaved persons, the poor, and nobles.
gave hope to the homeless.
appealed to those who were repelled by the extravagances of imperial Rome.
offered a personal relationship with a loving God.
promised eternal life after death.
312 CE made Christianity legal
Constantine made Constantinople the capital 330 CE.
Became the first emperor to accept it as
A bishop or priest headed supervised local churches.
Pope-Head of the Christian Church
Fall of the Roman Empire
After Marcus Aurelius in 180 CE
The empire would start to decline.
A drastic drop in the value of money coupled with a rise in prices is known as what?
How else might Rome defend its borders without Roman soldiers?
In 284 CE Diocletian divided the empire.
He divided the empire into the Greek speaking East (Greece, Anatolia, Syria, and Egypt) and the West (Italy, Gaul, Britain, and Spain)
Constantine in 324 CE
Attila the Hun
By 476 the Roman Empire fell
What are some things we have today because of the Romans?
The Latin language
Roman Roads (52,000 miles)
Reasons why the Roman Empire fell.
272 AD – 22 May 337 AD
20 million slaves
Why were these laws so important?
The Judicial Branch was led by the Praetors: Eight men who served one-year terms.
Praetors were chosen from the people.
In our government, the Praetors’ job would be done by the supreme court.
The Judicial Branch
Members: All Citizen-Soldiers
Controlled: Consul selection and Making laws.
Members: Grouped according to where they lived. 35 tribes.
Controlled: Election of tribunes and law making
In our government, the Assemblies’ jobs would be done by Congress.
The Republic was able to grow through the efforts of the people.
The Punic (Latin for Phoenicia) Wars were fought between
Carthage had been a colony of Phoenicia and had become the regional power by controlling the rich iron trade.
The Punic Wars
The 1st Punic War
Years: 264 BCE – 241 BCE
1. Rome feared Carthaginian domination of Sicily.
2. Carthage attacked Messina.
3. Messina called on Rome for aid.
1. Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia go to Rome.
2. Carthage has to give Rome money.
3. Carthage loses much of its former power.
1.Carthage moved into Spain to recover territory and money.
2.Carthage attacked the city of Saguntum, who had an alliance with Rome.
1. Carthage loses Spain
2. Carthage must give up their Navy
3. Carthage must give Rome even more money
Hannibal Barca- Carthaginian general who invaded Italy with War Elephants. Crossed the Alps.
Gave the Romans a heavy defeat at the battle of Cannae. (Only 10,000 of the 70,000 Roman soldier survived.)
Defeated at the Battle of Zama by Scipio Africanus. This was the only time he was ever defeated.
During the 3rd Punic War, Philip V of Macedon allied with Hannibal. Later, Rome captured all of Greece as well.
1. Cato (a senator) called for Carthage to be destroyed. Carthago delenda est.
2. Rome had a strong hatred for Carthage and a desire to destroy them.
1. Carthage was completely destroyed.
2. Rome enslaved the people of Carthage.
3. Rome became the dominant power in the Mediterranean.
When Carthage attacked the city of Saguntum in Spain, Rome felt it was a threat to their interest and declared war against Carthage.
Hannibal, the great Carthaginian general, would lead his army, which included elephants, through Europe and across the Pyrenees and Alps to invade Italy.
Hannibal’s father, Hamilcar, was instrumental in Carthage’s Spanish expansion. Hamilcar was filled with hatred for Rome and shame from the 1st Punic War. He would pass on his hatred and shame to Hannibal.
His plan against Rome was simple: early decisive victories and convince Roman allies to side with Carthage.
The 2nd Punic War
Years: 218 BCE – 201 BCE
The 3rd Punic War
149 BCE – 147 BCE
Contributions of ancient Rome
• Art and architecture: Pantheon, Colosseum, Forum
• Technology: Roads, aqueducts, Roman arches
• Science: Achievements of Ptolemy
• Medicine: Emphasis on public health (public baths, public water systems, medical schools)
• Language: Latin, Romance languages
• Literature: Virgil’s Aeneid
• Religion: Roman mythology; adoption of Christianity as the imperial religion
• Law: The principle of “innocent until proven guilty” (from the Twelve Tables)
Four Main Reasons
1. Economic Decline.
2. Social Unrest.
3. Political Decay.
4. Military Upheaval.
The Huns were nomads who came from central Asia.
The Huns continued to push Germanic groups further into Roman territory until they also became a threat to Rome.
The Huns were first united by their leader Attila.
The Huns eventually negotiated a truce with Pope Leo I.
The Aeneid, the story of a Greek hero who settles in Italy.
Written by the poet Virgil
The Gracchi brothers attempted to:
1. Limit the size of estates.
2. Gave land to the Poor.