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The Peaceful MArch To Madinah:
Transcript of The Peaceful MArch To Madinah:
The Peaceful March To Makkah:
Six years had passed since Prophet Muhammad had left his beloved Makkah. The city had been left in control of the Quraysh, or pagans who decided to attack Prophet and his companions many times but failed like in the battle of Badr and Al-Khandaq. However Ilsam was still growing in that time.
According to the Arab custom, every Arab was entitled to visit Masjid-ul-Haram, the sacred mosque in makkah. There was not any kind of fightinf allowed in these sacred months (Al-Ash-Hur-Ul-Hurum). The four motnths were: Muharram, Rajab, Thul Qiddah and Thul Hijjah. in these sacred months people could visit Makkah without any faer of attacking or killing.
The Prophet's vision
During Shawal, six years after Hijrah, Prophet Muhammad received a beautiful vision about himself reaching Makkah, performing Hajj, shaving his head and sacrificing some animals. The prophet naturally thought that his dream would come true because Prophets dreams usually come true.
The real Objective
Immedialty after the dream, the prophet ordered the pilgrimage to Makkah. "Certainly not by fighting, and most surely in peace" the prophet had said, when asked if the Quraysh would let them enter Makkah. No wepons were allowed, only swords to protect them from pirates and wild animals. The prophet sent word to all neighboring tribes to accompany him to Makkah to do pilgrimage, in the month of Thul Qidah (a sacred month). He also sent messages to Quraysh to inform them that was bound to Makkah on a peaceful Umrah trip.
It seems that the objective of the Messenger of Allah was to find a peacful way in resolving the big problem with Muslims and Pagans. The prophet was hoping that thePagans would except the message of Islam peacefully. The Muslims were so joyful at being able to visit Makkah after six years of painful separation. This journey would also let the Muslims visit their relatives, family and their own hometown.
The Journey to Makkah
The prophet took about 1,400 of the Muhajireen and Al-Ansar, 70 camels for pilgrim sacrifice as hadiy (sacrifcal animal for hajj and Umrah).
The Quraysh didnt like the plans of Prophet Muhammad. They prepared to prevent the Muslims from performing Umrah. When the prophet reached Asfan, near Makkah, Bishr ibn Sufyan met him and said:
"Oh Messenger of Allah, the Quraysh have set off with their camels to Thee-Tuwa in preperation for a long war with you. They swear that you will never enter Makkah" The Prophet angrily said: "Woe unto Quraysh! the war had eaten them up. What harm would there be if they let me freely meet with the Arabs? What do the Quraysh think? By God, I will continue struggle for the sake of Allah on the path he set me for until He gives me victory or this advance goes on."
The Prophet avoids War
When the Prophet heard about the fighters of Quraysh coming his way, A man from Bani Aslam suggested they take a rugged rocky road to to the west along the shore of the Red Sea. When the Quraysh saw the Muslims change route, they went back to Makkah.
Budayl Ibn Warqa, a tribal leader, came to Prophet Muhammad to inquire about the Prophet's intentions. He wanted to act as a mediator and told the Prophet that Quraysh will fight him and the Muslims and would prevent them from entering Makkah.
The Quraysh scolded Khurash (leader of the friendly tribe, Khuza'ah) when he told the Quraysh that the prophet was only making a visit to Makkah to worship duringthe Sacred Months. The Quraysh didn't care if it was the Sacred Month, they just wanted to prove to other tribes that they were strong and that they could do anything, that they were in control of Makkah.
QUraysh sent Urwah to the Prophet, and Urwah told the Prophet that he could never enter Makkah without permission from the Quraysh and that his people would leave and flee him. While talking Urwah kept touching the prophet beard, and every time he did that Al-Mughirah would hit his hand.
Urwah went back to Makkah and told Quraysh that Muhammad's companions will never give him up to the Quraysh.
Bay' at- ur-Ridwan
After Prophet Muhammad sent Uthman to Makkah, Uthman had been captured and didnt come back. Uthman was a true believer and a great companion of the Prophet, and was one of the first to embrace Islam. The Prophet then called his men under a tree to take their pledge. All fourteen hundred Muslims offered their sincere pledge to obey Allah and His Messenger, even in matters for life and death. This pledge was called Bay'at-ur-Ridwan because Allah was pleased with all of those who were part of this Bay'ah. Rasoolullah struck his hand on the top and his other hand representing Uthman as if Uthman was there in present. The war was lmost certain, whether victoey or Martyrdom. And O! There was Uthman returing from Makkah.
Treaty Of Hudaybiyah
Shortly affter the Quraysh relesed Uthman, they sent Suhayl Ibn Amr to the Prophet to make a settlement with him. Suhayl approached the Prophet and, the two talked before coming to an agreement. The Quraysh offered a deal to Prophet Muhammad. The terms included:
1. The Prophet and Muslims would withdraw this year and do their Umrah the next following year and stay in Makkah for 3 days.
2.The Quraysh and Muslims would not fight for 10 years.
3. The Muslims and the Quraysh were free to sign alliances with any tribes.
4. The Muslims were not allowed any person from Quraysh to become Muslim, but the Quraysh were free for any Muslim to convert his religion and join the Makkans.
The Prophet accepted the proposal. Ali Ibn Abi Talib was ordered to write the deal. Suhayl the Ambasdor of Quraysh insisted two write 'Bismik-Allahuma' instead of Ar-Rahman Ar-Raheem and again refused when the Prophet wanted to write Muhammad Rasoolullah, Messenger of Allah, and said that he had to write Muhammad Ibn Abdullah.
The Statement of the Treaty
The story of Abu Jandal
The ink of the treaty had hardly dried when Abu JAndal, son of Suhayl Ibn Amr, came and joined the Muslims. When Suhayl saw him, he became furious and caught hold of him. beat him, and dragged him. Abu Jandal cried:
"Oh Muslims! Will you drive me back to the pagans and let me them persecute me and put my faith on trial?"
But there was nothing that Abu Jandal could do, the treaty was signed, he would just have to be patient and wait.
The Wisdom of Ummu Salamah
When the treaty was signed, the Prophet ordered the Muslims to shave their heads and slaughter their sacrifice. No one was sure about this so they refused to do what the prophet said, The Prophet then went into his tent and told his wife, Ummu Salamah.
She told him that he should slaughter his sacrifice and shave his head first, then the Sahabah would do it as well. Ummu Salamh was right.
The Sahabah had done so after the Prophet did it first. This shows that the Prophet valued the opinions of his wives and took the initiative of doing the right thing, and then the followers would surely follow too.
The Revelation of Surah Fateh
Half way between Makkah and Madinah, Allah revelaed to Muhammad (saw) surat-ul-Fateh, or the victory (48). Prophet Muhammad was extremely happy, for Allah told him clearly in this Surah that the Treaty of Al-Hubaydiyah was a victory. These ayaat brought peace to the hearts of the Muslims.
Benefits of the Treaty
1. Spreading Islam in Arabia
2. Saving lives of the Quraysh people.
3.Protecting Muslim lives in Makkah.
4. Recognizing the power of Islam in Arabia
5. Showing the QUraysh hiw faithful the Muslims were.
Who was Ummu Salamah?
Here real name was Hind Bint Abi Umayyah Al-Makhzoomy. Her Father was known for his generosity and kind heart. Her mother was 'Aatikah Bint Abdul-Muttalib, and she was a cousin of Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w). Ummu Salamah's husband was Abdullah ibn Adulasad, who is known by his nickname, Abu Salamah - father of Salamah, their son.
Both Abu Salamah and Ummu Salamah were among the first people who accepted Islam. The Quraysh were angry to hear this though. The Quraysh began persecuting them, but the couple did not waver and remained steadfast in their new faith.
The Migration to Abyssinia
Life in Makkah was becoming unbearable and hard for the Muslims. The Prophet so then allowed the Muslims to emigrate to Abyssinia. For Ummu Salamah, it meant abandoning her home, but it was hoping for the pleasure and reward of Allah.
Ummu Salamah and her companions recieved great hospitalitity and protection from the Abyssinian Ruler, King Negus. The Quraysh had eased the persecution since there were so many Muslims in Mkkah, so Ummu Salamah and Abu Salamah decided to return to Makkah.
The Heartbeaking Story
Some time later, when people started to migrate to Madinah, her husband, Abu Salamah, also decided to proceed to Medinah. He saddled his camel, and mounted his wife on it, together with their son Salamah who was then only amel's rope from ha child. Then he set out, leading the camel. The relatives of Umm Salamah came up to him and snatched Ummu Salamah and went back to Makkah. In the meantime, the relatives of Abu Salamah fell upon the little boy Salamah and took him away from his mother. Abu Salamah was let go his way to Medinah. Umm Salamah was left alone with her tribe, Banu Makhzoom. She wept day and night for about a year, till one man from Banu Umayyah saw her condition and asked her tribe to let her go. They agreed and so her son was restored to her. Umm Salamah was wise and brave. She saddled her camel and set forth to join her husband in Madinah. The mother and the child were soon on the path leading to the City of the Prophet. At Tan'im she met 'Uthman ibn Talha. He was astonished to find her going all alone, risking herself to any freebooters on the way. So he traveled with her until she reached Madinah to a village near Quba. "Your Husband is in this village, enter it with blessings of God" Said Uthman ibn Talha He turned and headed for Makkah.
New Life in Madinah
Ummu Salamah was over-joyed to see her husband, they were all happy to see each other. Great and momentous events passed like the Battle of Badr, in ehich Abu Salamah fought. Then there was the Battle of Uhud. Abu Salamah came out of this battle wounded very badly. His wounds never healed completely and he remained bedridden.
Abu Salamah Passes Away
Abu Salamah remained sick in bed for several days. One morining while the Prophet was visiting Abu Salamah he passed away. Ummu Salamah remembered the prayer her husband told her and so she started reciting it:
"O Lord reward me for plight..." But she could not bring herself to continue..."O Lord give me something better than i lost" But she kept thinking, "who could be better than Abu Salamah"
The new Umm-ul-Mu'mineen
When Ummu Salamha completed her iddah (4 months and ten days), Abu Bakr proposed marriage, but she declined. Then Omar asked her, but she declined again. The Prophet asked her, and she agreed. She said
"O Messenger of Allah, I have 3 characteristics. I am a woman who is extremely jealous, and I am afraid that you will see something in me that will anger you and cause Allah to punish me. I am a woman who is already advanced in age and i am a woman with a young family. The Prophet replied that regarding the jealousy you mentioned, I pray to Allah, the Almighty to let it go from you. Regarding the question of your age you have mentioned, i am afflicted with the same problem. Your family is my Family. And so they were married, Allah answered the prayer of the brave Ummu Salamah and gave her better than Abu Salamah.
There were many lessons but the one that stands out most is all the
sacrifices Ummu Salamah made for Islam and yet she was so brave and happy. Even though the sacrifices were hard and painful, the brought great success, blessing and pleasure of Allah and a high level in Jannah InshAllah.
Ja'far and the King of Abyssinia
Ja'far lived with his uncle, Al-abbas, until he married Asmaa' Bint Omays, they were among the first people to embrace Islam under the guidance of Abu Bakr.
Ja'far and Asmaa were having a hard time in Makkah so they decided to migrate to Abyssinia. Soon they settled down in the new land under care of King Negus. King negus was as protecting, caring and righteous ruler as the Prophet had said. Now Abyssinia became the first land outside Arabia to experience Islam.
The Quraysh In Abyssinia
The Quraysh found about the Muslims' migration to Abyssinia. Amr Ibn al-Aas and Abdullah ibn Abi Rabiah were sent to Abyssinia by the Quraysh. They showed many gifts and jewels to King Negus and said that the Muslims were very wicked, and they attacked the Qurayhs's religion and that the Muslims follow a unknown religion. These two men also said King Negus should give the Muslims back to Makkah. Negus was very kind and fair, he said that he will first hear the Muslims' side of the story. Amr and Abdullah became worried. They tried to prevent the king from listening to the Muslims' story, but they failed.
Da'wah, in the Royal Court of Abyssinia
The Muslims decided that Ja'far would be the spokes person. The King asked Ja'far about his religion. Ja'far spoke the truth and told the King everything he needed to persuade the King to let the Muslims stay in Makkah. Ja'far talked about Allah, the Prophet and how life was so much better when the Prophet came, and how life was so shameful before the Prophet had revealed his message.
The King's Soft Heart
Negus was impressed and wanted to hear more. So Ja'far beautifully read to him a piece of Qur'an. The king was impressed and so he let the Muslims stay in his land. The next day Amr and Abdullah again went to the King and told him that the Muslims say something terrible about Jesus. But Ja'far said:
"Our Prophet says Jesus is the servant of God and his Prophet. He is God's spirit and His word which He cast into Mary the Virgin.
Negus was once again excited and said that Jesus was exactly as Ja'far had mentioned. Negus told the Muslims:
"Go, you are safe and secure in my land.
Whoever hurts you will be punished. I don't like to gain a mountain of gold for hurting a single on of you."
Quraysh's Mission to Abyssinia Fails
Amr and his companion left broken and frustrated when their gifts were given back to them. The Muslims stayed in the land of Negus, who proved to be the most generous and kind to his guests.
Muslims Live safely in Abyssinia
Jaf'ar returns to Arabia
In the 7th year of Hijrah, Ja'far and his family moved back to Madinah with a group of Muslims. When they arrived, the Prophet was just returning from a successful battle of Khaybar. He was overjoyed to meet Ha'far that he said:
"I do not know what fills me with more happiness, the conquest of Khaybar or the coming of Ja'far."
Later Ja'far was known as the 'father of poor' since he used to help the poor and needy.
King of Abyssinia embraces Islam
The Prophet told the Muslims later that King Negus had embraced Islam. When the King died, the Muslims and the Prophet in Madinah made Salat-ul-Janazah, the funeral prayer, in his absence. from that point Islam started spreading in Africa Nearly half of Ethiopia profess Islam as their faith, as in case with Africa as a whole.
The Battle of Mu'tah
In the month of Jumada Al-Oula there was a battle between the Muslims and the Romans. The prophet chose 3 people to be in charge of the battle and those were:
Zaid ibn Harithah, Ja'far Ibn Abi Talib and Abdullah Ibn Rawahah
. The Muslim army marched to Ma'an, a city in the South of Jordan. The Northern Tribes were strong and had gathered 1000 fighters. Abdullah rose up and reminded his army that they were about ot do Jihad, so also said there were 2 things ahead of them:
An-Nasr, or Ash-Shahadah, victory or martyrdom. And both ways they would go to Paradise.
The two Armies Meet in Mu'tah
As the battle started the Muslims fought the enemy courageously and fell as a great shaheed. When Zaid Was maryred, Ja'far became in charge, then Ja'far's arm was cut off, so he held the flag with his other hand. but then the other hand was cut off but he continued to fight, when Ja'far was martyred, Abdullah Ibn Rawahah assumed leadership of the army. After that, Abdullah was martyred, all 3 leaders were martyred.
The two Armies Stop the Fight
After the death of Abdullah, the Muslims chose Khalid-ibn-ul-Waleed becuase he had great military skills and he was strong. Khalid was about to withdraw the fight when he realized he needed to secure a safe and honorable retreat for his small army. He was a clever man and decided to change positions of the army, he changed the people in the right wing to the left wing, and the people of the left wing to the right wing. This confused the Romans, the Romans thought the Muslims had gotten more fighters. Both armies withdrew the fight. The battle was victory for the Muslims because they were able to withdraw without suffering.
When the Prophet had found out about the leaders who were martyred, he went to Asmaa's house and hugged her children and cried. Asmaa was getting worried and soon she found out why, she was very sad and she started crying. The prophet ordered food to be prepared for Asmaa. He then had a vision that
Ja'far, Zaid and Abdullah were all in Paradise. Ja'far had two wings instead of arms. This made him cheer up and happy.
I HOPE YOU LEARNED A LOT FROM THIS AMAZING PREZI!
I LEARNED A LOT OF LESSONS AND ENJOYED THIS TASK! THANK YOU MS. BATOUL! THIS HAS HELPED DEVELOP MY ISLAMIC EDUCATION!
It had almost been 10 years Ja'afar and Asmaa were staying in Abyssinia. Asmaa gave birth to 3 children there: Abdullah, Muhammad, and Awn. They were the first family to name their child after Prophet Muhammad.