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To what extent can the competence of technology b

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Freya Thomas

on 5 October 2017

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Transcript of To what extent can the competence of technology b

AREAS OF KNOWLEDGE
NATURAL SCIENCES
ETHICS
Smart Tissue Autonomous Robot
An automatic robot called STAR (Smart Tissue Autonomous Robot) performed delicate surgery better than even the best human surgeons.
STAR was able to stitch soft tissue together in live pigs.
It did so more precisely and more reliably than a human.
It was designed to copy the best surgical practice of human surgeons, however it soon outperformed them.
It was able to do so using an advanced 3D imaging system and precise force sensing to apply stitches to sub- millimetre precision.
STAR also comes equipped with a near infrared camera to image soft tissue when fluorescent markers are injected.
Surgeons still have to oversee the robot’s work, in case of an unexpected situation such as sudden bleeding.
Shows the potential of automated surgical robots to improve patient outcomes by reducing scarring and unnecessary trauma during surgery.
Such robots could be used on other soft tissue operations, such as hernia and torn muscle repairs.
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

ADVANTAGES
REAL-LIFE SITUATION
Tesla driverless car kills passenger -
Who's to blame?
THE FIRST DRIVERLESS CAR DEATH

The Tesla car was put on Autopilot mode and against a bright sky, the car’s sensors system failed to distinguish a large, white 18-wheel truck and trailer crossing the highway
The car attempted to drive full speed under the trailer, with the bottom of the trailer impacting the windshield of the Model S, and subsequently killing the driver - Joshua Brown, 40, from Ohio
To what extent can the competence of technology be trusted to complete human tasks?
WAYS OF KNOWING
INTUITION
LANGUAGE
SENSE PERCEPTION
REASON


SCENARIOS
1
2

DRIVERLESS CARS ARE ILL-EQUIPPED TO TACKLE SUCH COMPLEX DECISIONS

In a context where anything could happen, it’s very hard to imagine a totally uncontrolled environment with a driverless car being successful, without the driver having a chance to pick up the wheel

It is 'impossible' to create an algorithm that can recreate human ethics on the road, because there are an infinite number of possible scenarios that can arise when driving
Artificial intelligence does not have the same cognitive capabilities as humans do and instead, autonomous vehicles make decisions based on speed, weather, road conditions, distance and other data gathered by a variety of sensors, including cameras and radars. A driverless car will calculate a course of action based on how fast it is traveling as well as the speed of an object in its path, for example.
Strong artificial intelligence refers to the work that looks to genuinely imitate a human – and that could potentially even explain the way humans think. Few examples of this exist, currently.

Then there is weak artificial intelligence, which simply aims to build systems that are able to behave in the same manner as humans but do not have the aim of thinking as humans think.

Another classification of artificial intelligence are those that are meant to meet certain tasks, known as narrow artificial intelligence; and those designed to reason, known as general artificial intelligence.
Dealing with mundane tasks

One massive advantage of artificial intelligence is its potential to complete mundane tasks through intricate automation that will increase productivity. Theoretically this can even remove “boring” tasks from humans and free them up to be increasingly creative.
Faster decisions

Using artificial intelligence alongside cognitive technologies can help make faster decisions and carry out actions quicker. The time it takes for humans to react to a stimulus is much longer than it takes for technology to react, making artificial intelligence more reliable in this sense.
Avoiding errors

The phrase “human error” was born because humans, naturally, make mistakes from time to time. Computers however, do not make these mistakes – that is, of course, assuming they are programmed properly. With artificial intelligence, data could be processed error-free, no matter how big the dataset might be
Taking risks on behalf of humans

With artificial intelligence, you can arguably lessen the risks you expose humans to in the name of research. Take, for example, space exploration and the Mars rover, known as Curiosity. It can travel across the landscape of Mars, exploring it and determining the best paths to take, while learning to think for itself. Using artificial intelligence in this manner could potentially lead to massive benefits in areas such as demand forecasting, medical diagnosis and oil exploration.
DISADVANTAGES
Job losses

There is little doubt that artificial intelligence will displace many low-skilled jobs. Arguably, robots have already taken many jobs on the assembly line – but now this could extend to new levels. Take, for example, the concept of driverless cars, which could displace the need to have millions of human drivers, from taxi drivers to chauffeurs, very quickly. Of course some would argue that artificial intelligence will create more wealth than it destroys – but there is genuine risk that this will not be distributed evenly, particularly during its early expansion.
Distribution of power

Artificial intelligence carries the risk, in the minds of some, of taking control away from humans – dehumanising actions in many ways. Nations that are in possession of artificial intelligence could theoretically kill humans without needing to pull a trigger.
Lack of judgement calls

Humans can take unique circumstances and judgement calls into account when they make their decisions, something that artificial intelligence may never be able to do. One example occurred in Sydney, Australia, in 2014 when a shooting drama in the downtown area prompted people to make numerous calls to Uber in an effort to escape the area. The result was that Uber’s ride rates surged based on its supply and demand algorithm – there was no consideration involved for the circumstances in which the riders found themselves.
LANGUAGE
STAR and Tesla driverless cars do not communicate by the human language.

They instead communicate and run through coding.

Although their language is not like ours, they can still be trusted to complete human tasks, as their knowledge to complete tasks is written in the form of code written by humans.
Arguably, this can allow technology to complete tasks more effectively than humans, as there is no human error and no physical/ biological hindrances; for example a surgeon tiring during a long surgery.

The real life situation of STAR demonstrates this, as it was able to stitch more effectively than even the best human surgeons.

Also, the creators of the technology have time to check the coding language and ensure there are no flaws.

However, if there is a mistake in the programming; this can be potentially fatal.

In the case of Tesla driverless cars, as shown in the real life situation; the system (coding language) can fail to detect obstacles, as it is not programmed to look any further than directly in the line of sight of the bonnet
Fortunately, when flaws like this are noticed, technology can be reprogrammed and improved possibly a lot faster than a human could learn to change their habits when completing a task.

In the case of STAR, faults in the technology’s ‘language’ would result in direct damage to the body, as it is already working on open soft tissues.
A benefit of technology’s unique language, is that it can be learnt and applied instantly, so human tasks can be completed as soon as the technology is created.

Whereas in humans; language and communication must be learnt since birth and can always be forgotten.

SENSE PERCEPTION
STAR’s sense perception is controlled by its 3D imaging system, precise force sensing and infrared camera.

All of these features are very specialised to STAR.

So helps it to complete its human tasks to an incredibly high standard.
An advantage to having so little sensory systems is that it can focus precisely in on the stimulus, without being distracted like a human may be by its environment.

Also, the basis of its sense perception and how it interprets stimulus is due to its programming.

Programming is a science which can be continuously perfected.

Also, if the instruments for STAR’s sense perception wear out and become less effective, they can just be replaced.

Whereas humans fatigue and their ability to complete tasks will eventually lessen, as their senses dull.
However, if STAR was to come across a scenario which it had not been programmed for, its ‘senses’ could not interpret what is happening and therefore may be unable to complete the task.

In such cases, it’s incompetence may even cause harm.

Tesla self- driving cars have many sensory features, mainly including cameras and obstacle detectors.

As mentioned before, in a situation which the cars are not programmed for, their sensory equipment will also not be capable of interpreting the stimulus and taking the right action.

Resulting in potentially fatal crashes.
Although it can ‘see’ to some extent, it has no brain to interpret what it sees, instead only set code which may not be applicable to the situation.

However, like with STAR is sense perception programming can be perfected and worn parts can be replaced so it can continue its role.
INTUITION
When in situations, driverless cars are not capable of carrying out acceptable decisions in the moment as they do not have the same ability to use initiative as humans do.

Humans, throughout their life, face situations in which they have to chose one or the other - using their intuition. They are also able to use common sense when faced with dilemmas

In technology, however, it is impossible to code for any situation that could arise ever, meaning that it lacks the intuitive sense that humans use when making rash decisions. This can cause problems like the death of Joshua Brown in the Tesla Autopilot crash (real-life situation)

CONCLUSION
Unprogrammed situations

For example, with the Tesla self-driving car, it is programmed to sense obstructions; however, if an outside environmental factor occurs, which the car is not programmed to respond to, this could result in an accident as the car is unable to use it’s own reasoning as the reasoning used is programmed by humans when the car is being manufactured.
eliminates human error
flawless coding
instant application of language
instruments specialised for the task
technology not working can be replaced

lack of judgement
errors in programming can cause harm
moral decisions cannot be coded
lack of intuition
power shortage/cut
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-34066941
WILL ROBOTS TAKE OVER YOUR JOB?
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