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Sociology & Anthropology

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Meann de Villa

on 24 July 2013

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Transcript of Sociology & Anthropology

The Concept of Culture
EDWARD B. TYLOR
THOMAS STEARNS ELIOT
a poet
described culture as simply “the way of life of a particular people living in one place.”

1.
As used with an individual
.

2.
As used with a group
.
DRESSLER
- “culture is a social heritage, transmitted from one generation to another and shared.”


B. Other meanings of Culture
A. The Nature and Scope of Culture
CULTURE
a concept in sociology which has a common meaning expressed in a variety of definitions.
the total way of life of people that bind them together as a social entity.
a distinctive way of life of a society that makes one society different from another.
English Anthropologist
defined culture as a “complex whole”

LESLIE WHITE
defined culture as organization of phenomena that is dependent upon symbols, which includes acts, objects, ideas, and sentiments
B. Other meanings of Culture
3.
As used by sociologists and other social scientists
.
Every person who learns and follows the way of his society has culture

4.
As used by anthropologists
.
“All learned behavior is a product of how people think about things—their cognition.”

Cognitive Model of Culture
- views culture as a mental map that guides people in relation to their surroundings and to other people.

C. CLASSIFICATION OF CULTURE
Dynamism

a process or mechanism responsible for the development or motion of a system.
I. ACCORDING TO DYNAMISM

1.
Static Culture
the same culture or the same cultural patterns are transmitted from one generation to generation.

2.
Dynamic Culture
the culture or the cultural patterns continue to change as they are passed on from one generation to another.

II. ACCORDING TO STABILITY


1. Stable Culture
the culture or cultural patterns are satisfying to the group.

2. Unstable Culture
many of the people in the group are not satisfied with the way things are being done.

III. ACCORDING TO FORM OR ELEMENTS
1.
Material Culture
consists of all the tools, equipment, weapons, automobiles, and trucks, airplanes, ships, road and bridges, television, electric lights, clothing, houses and other buildings, and all other concrete and tangible objects made, constructed, used, and shared by the people of the group.


consists of the social, economic, political, educational, medical, and other institutions that a group has established.

ideas, concepts, intellectual development, religious beliefs and practices, customs and traditions, folkways, values, mores, etc. that the group has accumulated through years.

IV. ACCORDING TO ASPECTS


1.
Manifest aspects

obviously intended and usually applauded.

2.
Latent aspects

covert or hidden, and are sometimes considered undesirable and often unrecognized.


Culture
is shared and acquired (senses and experiences)
Culture
is shared and transmitted orally and by writing.
*Idiosyncrasies
- A structural or behavioral characteristic peculiar to an individual or group.
Culture
is social.
Culture
is ideational.

D. CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE
D. CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE
noted for his innovative work on the sociology of migration and for his formulation of what became known as the
Thomas theorem
, a fundamental principle of sociology:

William Isaac Thomas
"If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences"
Culture
gratifies human needs.
Culture
is adaptive (discoveries, inventions, or cultural borrowings)
Cultural Borrowing
- taking ideas, customs, and social behaviors from another culture or civilization.
Diffusion
- spread of traits from individual to individual and from one group to another.
-considered as the principal sorce of cultural change.
Culture
is interactive.

D. CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE
E. COMPONENTS OF CULTURE
NORMS
provides as guideposts to our daily living which comes
in the form of rules or patterns for behavior that define what is expected, customary, right or proper in a given situation.

shared rules about acceptable and unacceptable social behavior.

an idea of how people should behave and act.

they come in the form of rules, standards or prescriptions
followed by the people who follow a certain standards.



Folkways
refer to the norms that looked upon by members of the society as not being extremely important and that may be violated without severe punishment.
this is behavior patterns of society that are organized and repetitive.
examples:
- wearing gender appropriate clothing
- eating food with proper utensils

SUBDIVISIONS OF NORMS:
A. MORES

must folkways

norms set by society, largely for behavior and appearance.
norms that are looked upon by members of the society as
being extremely important and violation of
which results in severe punishment.
rules of conduct that are associated with an intense feeling
of right and wrong.
they are often times referred to us as “
taboos
”.

Examples:
- customary for people to dress up but it is much more necessary if people dress up decently.

TYPES OF FOLKWAYS:
B. Techniways

habits or skills with some material, utilitarian object or the social adjustment to technological change.

Examples:
- Right way to drive, type a manuscript using a computer, land an airplane and operate a CD/DVD system, using Mp3 player are matters technique rather than culture custom.

TYPE OF FOLKWAYS:
C. Fashions and Fads

Fashions

- are folkways that endure for a short time and enjoy widespread acceptance within society.
*Examples:
- new styles of clothing and design in home architecture.
Fads
- folkways that endure for a short time and enjoy acceptance only among segment of society. They often find reflection in amusements.
*Examples:
- computer games, popular tunes, dance steps, health practice, and movie idols.

TYPES OF FOLKWAYS:
D. Laws
Deliberately formulated rules of behavior enforced by special authority whose function is so defined.

TYPES OF FOLKWAYS:
TWO ASPECTS OF LAWS:
1.
Customary Laws
this law arise in a more gradual, unplanned and non-deliberative fashion through the action of an authoritative party or organization within the society.

2.
Enacted Laws
these are laws which are planned and deliberate especially when the society becomes quite large and heterogeneous and is continuously confronted with major social change.


regarded as the bases of our norms.

it is expected that every culture possesses body of knowledge or science that involves intellectual awareness and technical control of matter, time, space, and events.

the meaning of man’s experiences are represented by ideas consisting of beliefs and values.

KNOWLEDGE, BELIEFS and VALUES
Ideas

these are non-material aspects of culture

Beliefs
result of experiences about the physical, biological, and social world in which he lives.
they are testable according to the rule of science.
Examples: belief of people about disaster, illness, births, marriage, death
Values
these represent individually held or community shared conceptions of the desirable. They represent the criteria for evaluating the desirability of things.

Atienza, Mery Darlene A.
Dar-Dar
:))
Meann
de Villa, MaryAnn B.
:pp
Megan
:DD
Malabanan, Megan J.
Rosie
=))
Salazar, Rosanna
G
R
O
U
P
IV
:)


Atienza, Mery Darlene A.
de Villa, MaryAnn B.
Malabanan, Megan J.
Salazar, Rosanna
F. Functions of Culture
1.
Means of social control
• Individuals usually behave in ways approved by society.
• Individuals act according to the cultural patterns and practices approved by the group to which they belong and avoid acts that deviate from those approved by the group.

2.
Means of communication
• Members of a cultural group use the same language, the same idioms, and symbols with attached meanings.

3.
Establishment of ethical standards
• Cultural group sets its own ethical standards, showing what is right and wrong, or making an act right or wrong.


F. Functions of Culture
4.
Anticipation of reactions
• One can anticipate the reaction of an individual to the action of another or to any situation for that matter because of cultural norms.

5.
Provision of education
• A cultural group provides a system of education or instruction in which the incoming generation learns all the knowledge, skills, and values.
• This function is performed by the school system

6.
Development of personality
• Personal development is an important function of culture
• Two Factors Affect the Development of Personality
1. Heredity
2. Environment

F. Functions of Culture
7.
Development of character


Personality
- the sum total of the individual’s traits and characteristics

Character
- the moral qualities or ethical standards of the individual.
• Culture develops character in the sense that the individual usually imbibes the spiritual and moral values and/or ethical standards set or approved by the group.
• Moral behavior is also controlled by culture in the sense that the individual behaves only in accordance with the moral norms of his group.

G. Modes of Acquiring Culture
1.
Imitation
- basis of observational learning and socialization.
2.
Indoctrination
- process of inculcating ideas, attitudes, cognitive strategies or a professional methodology.

3.
Conditioning
- process in which an individual acquires a certain pattern of beliefs, values, behavior, and actions through the social norms prevailing in one's social and cultural milieu.
H. Other Concepts of Cultural Significance
CULTURAL VARIATIONS VS. CULTURAL UNIVERSALS
1.
Cultural Variability
" the range of variations between cultures is almost endless and yet at the same time, culture resemble one another in many important ways." - Dean Champion

2.
Cultural Universals
these are traits that are part of every culture. It includes bodily adornment, courtship, dancing, education, food taboos, funeral rites, etc.
H. Other Concepts of Cultural Significance
CULTURAL VARIATIONS VS. CULTURAL UNIVERSALS
William Graham Sumner
According to him, there are no universal moral standards of right and wrong, good or bad in evaluating cultural phenomenon. Standards are relative to the culture in which they appear.
Cultural Universals give rise to:
1.
Cultural relativity/Cultural Relativism
- a concept that cultural norms and values derive their meaning within a specific social context.



2.
Ethnocentrism
- the practice of judging another culture by the standards of one's own culture.
- leads to discrimination.

Cultural Universals give rise to:
Dorothy Lee
According to her, Ethnocentrism is a two-way street.
1.
Subculture
- group of people within a culture that differentiates themselves from the larger culture to which they belong.
3.
Culture Shock
- A condition of confusion and anxiety affecting a person suddenly exposed to an alien culture or milieu.

Other concepts of Cultural significance:
2.
Contraculture
- a subculture that rejects and opposes significant elements of the dominant culture.
Other concepts of Cultural significance:
4.
Culture Lag
- describe what happens in a social system when the cultural ideas used to regulate social life do not keep pace with other social changes.

Example:
Medical technology is being used to keep people’s bodies functioning long after they would otherwise have been considered dead. This raises cultural questions about when life ends, who has the right to end artificial life support, etc. The development of new cultural beliefs, values, and norms lags behind the dilemmas posed by the technological change.
5.
Culture Dualism
- it is experienced when man is accustomed in practicing two or more cultures from two different societies.
Other concepts of Cultural significance:
Dr. Onofre Corpuz
According to him, "one thing that characterizes Filipino culture is cultural dualism."
References:
Introduction to Sociology and Anthropolgy' 2007 Ed.
by Dr. Epitacio S. Palispis
General Sociology: A Simplified Approach
by Salvacion M. Colon
Social Studies in Perspective (Second Edition), 2010
by Maria Carmela M. Ibanez
http://www.soc.ucsb.edu/research/culture
http://sociology.about.com/od/Deviance/a/Folkways-Mores-Taboos-And-Laws.htm
https://www.boundless.com/sociology/understanding-culture/culture-and-society/cultural-universals/
Full transcript