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Major Theories of Anthropology

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Chechan Amba

on 30 November 2012

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Transcript of Major Theories of Anthropology

Anthropology: Theories Theories and Their Contribution FUNCTIONALISM DIFFUSIONISM MATERIALISM STRUCTURALISM 1. FUNCTIONALISM (societal and individual focus)
2. STRUCTURALISM
3. DIFFUSIONISM
4. MATERIALISM
5. INTERPRETIVISM Structural Functionalism (societal focus) Claude Levi-Strauss “Father of Structuralism” (1908 - 2009)
explore the variety of ways that culture and society are structured, and how such structures are related to human development and identity Karl Marx (1818-1883)
"idea that technological and economic factors play the primary role in molding a society" Anthropological Theories and their contribution Theories are like "big-picture" roadmaps, that are meant to orient us in the midst of a lot of facts, ideas, beliefs, opinions etc., to make general sense out of them. Emile Durkheim (1858 - 1917)
A. R. Radcliffe-Brown (1881 - 1955)
Focus on the "social condition" and "social facts," defined as a collection of symbols that are fundamental to society.
Religion as one example of social facts. Contribution (structural functionalism) : Identified the social functions of religion. Structural Functionalism (societal focus) Bronislaw Malinowski (1884 - 1942)

KEY POINTS:
types of needs that society satisfies for individuals: (1) individual needs (2) instrumental needs (3) integrative needs
interconnectedness of the different items which constituted a 'culture' to form some kind of 'system'
Functionalism (individual focus) Contribution (functionalism) : Added to the understanding of the social functions of religion. EMILE DURKHEIM BRONISLAW MALINOWSKI Main points: All peoples, all cultures, utilize a binary principles to organize and structure their experiences.
focuses on the study of myth and thinking
Contributions: Structures, as in case of religion and myth, are key to how people see the world and organize their experiences.
All forms of thinking, be they engineer or "bricoleur," are "logical." CLAUDE LEVI-STRAUSS Wilhelm Schmidt (1868 - 1954)
the spread of a cultural item from its place of origin to other places Main points: And mechanism for change was not unilineal evolution, but diffusion, "culture circles," centers of "primitive monotheism." Contributions: diffusion as one mechanism for change
contributes to acculturation WILHELM SCHMIDT Contribution: contribute to the basic biological survival of those in society (i.e., subsistence practices, technology, and demographic issues)
contributing factor in the shaping of cultures KARL MARX INTERPRETIVISM exemplified by Clifford Geertz (1926 - 2006)
Concern about "interpreting" the meaning of a cultural event Contributions: 1. The understanding that culture acts as both a model of and model for the world.
2. The importance of an non-judgmental perspective in comprehending another culture. CLIFFORD GEERTZ THANK YOU FOR LISTENING prepared by: NESTOR ALLADO
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