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Functions of the Digestive System

The digestive system transfers energy stored as food into energy to be used by the body. Each organ has a specific role to play in this process.

Callie Bush

on 21 March 2012

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Transcript of Functions of the Digestive System

Functions of the Digestive System Organs
the mouth
the pharynx
the esophagus
the stomach
the small intestine
the large intestine
Site where digestion begins
and food is moistened.
Carbohydrates are chemically digested in the mouth by saliva.
Proteins and fats are mechanically digested in the mouth.
Passageway for food materials.
Walls close off nasal passage and trachea when swallowing.
Passageway for food materials.
Peristalsis begins here to materials through GI tract.
Food is mixed with enzymes and HCl and broken down into smaller pieces.
This mixture is called "chyme."
Stomach acid also kills bacteria to protect the body.
Minimal absorbtion occurs - water, certain ions and drugs.
Digestion and absorption takes place.
In duodenum, bile breaks down fats and insulin breaks down carbohydrates. Chemicals neutralize stomach acids.
Some absorption of vitamins and minerals takes place.
In jejunum, digestion is completed and nutrients are absorbed.
In ileum, nutrients are absorbed.
Large intestine absorbs water and processes and transports waste from the body.
secretes glucagon which increases blood glucose
secretes insulin which lowers blood glucose levels
regulates blood sugars
forms urea
forms blood proteins
secretes both clotting and anticlotting factors
metabolism of cholesterol and fatty acids
metabolizes vitamin D
removes microorganisms
breakdown toxins and amino acids
stores iron
Stores bile to assist liver functions

Sends bile through common
bile duct to duodenum to
digest nutrients
Gall Bladder
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